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Spinal cholinergic neurons are critical for motor function in both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems and are affected in spinal cord injury and in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy. Using two screening approaches and in situ hybridization, we identified 159 genes expressed in typical cholinergic(More)
PURPOSE Structures derived from periocular mesenchyme arise by complex interactions between neural crest and mesoderm. Defects in development or function of structures derived from periocular mesenchyme result in debilitating vision loss, including glaucoma. The determination of long-term fates for neural crest and mesoderm in mammals has been inhibited by(More)
The specification and differentiation of dentate gyrus granule neurons in the hippocampus require temporally and spatially coordinated actions of both intrinsic and extrinsic molecules. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) and NeuroD1 are key regulators in these processes. Based on existing classification, we analyzed the(More)
The Rieger syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by ocular, craniofacial, and umbilical defects. Patients have mutations in PITX2, a paired-bicoid homeobox gene, also involved in left/right polarity determination. In this study we have identified a family of genes for enzymes responsible for hydroxylizing lysines in collagens as one group(More)
Neurons derived from neural stem cells could potentially be used for cell therapy in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. To achieve controlled differentiation of neural stem cells, we expressed transcription factors involved in the development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in rat and human neural progenitors. Using(More)
BACKGROUND Development of the eye depends partly on the periocular mesenchyme derived from the neural crest (NC), but the fate of NC cells in mammalian eye development and the signals coordinating the formation of ocular structures are poorly understood. RESULTS Here we reveal distinct NC contributions to both anterior and posterior mesenchymal eye(More)
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) patients with PITX2 point mutations exhibit a wide range of clinical features including mild craniofacial dysmorphism and dental anomalies. Identifying new PITX2 targets and transcriptional mechanisms are important to understand the molecular basis of these anomalies. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate PITX2(More)
Dopamine (DA) neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are potentially valuable in drug screening and as a possible source of donor tissue for transplantation in Parkinson's disease. However, existing culture protocols that promote the differentiation of DA neurons from hESCs are complex, involving multiple steps and having unreliable results(More)
PURPOSE To determine the temporal and spatial expression of Pitx2, a bicoid-like homeobox transcription factor, during postnatal development of mouse extraocular muscle and to evaluate its role in the growth and phenotypic maintenance of postnatal extraocular muscle. METHODS Mouse extraocular muscles of different ages were examined for the expression of(More)
This communication describes a two unit antisense RNA cassette system for use in gene silencing. Cassettes consist of a recognition unit and an inhibitory unit which are transcribed into a single RNA that carries sequences of non-contiguous complementarity to the chosen target RNA. The recognition unit is designed as a stem-loop for rapid formation of long-(More)