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Arsenic is a known carcinogen specifically linked to skin cancer occurrence in regions with highly contaminated drinking water or in individuals who took arsenic-containing medicines. Presently, it is unknown whether such effects occur at environmental levels found in the United States. To address this question, the authors used data collected on 587 basal(More)
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) list arsenic as a major concern for Superfund sites and the environment at large. Arsenic is clearly linked to skin, bladder, and lung cancer occurrence in populations highly(More)
CONTEXT Lumbar diskectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed for back and leg symptoms in US patients, but the efficacy of the procedure relative to nonoperative care remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of surgery for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The Spine Patient Outcomes Research(More)
BACKGROUND Management of degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis is controversial. Surgery is widely used, but its effectiveness in comparison with that of nonsurgical treatment has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. METHODS Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 U.S. states who had at least 12 weeks of symptoms and image-confirmed(More)
A study was conducted to evaluate toenail arsenic concentrations as a biologic marker of drinking water arsenic exposure. Study subjects were controls in a US population-based case-control study of nonmelanoma skin cancer, randomly selected from drivers' license records (those < 65 years of age) and Medicare enrollment files (those > or = 65 years of age).(More)
PURPOSE Randomized controlled trials have supported integrated oncology and palliative care (PC); however, optimal timing has not been evaluated. We investigated the effect of early versus delayed PC on quality of life (QOL), symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between October 2010 and March 2013, 207 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Surgery for spinal stenosis is widely performed, but its effectiveness as compared with nonsurgical treatment has not been shown in controlled trials. METHODS Surgical candidates with a history of at least 12 weeks of symptoms and spinal stenosis without spondylolisthesis (as confirmed on imaging) were enrolled in either a randomized cohort or(More)
OBJECT Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), synthesized endogenously following δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration, has been used for this purpose in high-grade glioma (HGG). The authors show that diagnostically significant but visually(More)
We studied the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on the pulmonary function (PF) of 80 healthy infants tested shortly after birth (mean, 4.2 +/- 1.9 wk). Mothers' prenatal smoking was measured by: (1) questionnaire reports at each prenatal visit of the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and (2) urine cotinine concentrations (corrected for(More)