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Thirty years after oxygen isotope records from microfossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth's orbital geometry control the ice ages, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic(More)
BACKGROUND Lipid droplets (LD) are organelles with an important role in normal metabolism and disease. The lipid content of embryos has a major impact on viability and development. LD in Drosophila embryos and cultured cell lines have been shown to move and fuse in a microtubule dependent manner. Due to limitations in current imaging technology, little is(More)
Most confocal microscopes do not produce images in real time with nonlaser light sources. The tandem scanning confocal microscope does produce such images but, because the pinhole apertures of the Nipkov disk must be placed far apart to reduce cross talk between neighboring pinholes, only 1% or less of the light available for imaging is used. We show that,(More)
We describe a simple method of obtaining optical sectioning in a conventional wide-field microscope by projecting a single-spatial-frequency grid pattern onto the object. Images taken at three spatial positions of the grid are processed in real time to produce optically sectioned images that are substantially similar to those obtained with confocal(More)
A whole-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope with the capability to perform optical sectioning is described. The excitation source is a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser that is regeneratively amplified and frequency doubled to 415 nm. Time-gated fluorescence intensity images at increasing delays after excitation are acquired using(More)
Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience, promising to deliver important data on the spatiotemporal activity within individual neurons as well as in networks of neurons. A major limitation of current technologies is the relatively slow scan rates along the z direction compared to the kHz rates obtainable in the x and y directions. Here, we(More)
We describe a method of optical refocusing for high numerical aperture (NA) systems that is particularly relevant for confocal and multiphoton microscopy. This method avoids the spherical aberration that is common to other optical refocusing systems. We show that aberration-free images can be obtained over an axial scan range of 70 mum for a 1.4 NA(More)
The main advantage of confocal microscopes over their conventional counterparts arises from their ability to optically 'section' nearly transparent materials; the thin image slices thus obtained can be used to reconstruct three-dimensional images, a capability which is particularly useful for the study of biological specimens. Confocal microscopes have(More)
The main advantage of confocal microscopes over their conventional counterparts is their ability to optically "section" thick specimens; the thin image slices thus obtained can be used to reconstruct three-dimensional images, a capability which is particularly useful in biological applications. However, it is well known that the resolution and optical(More)
We demonstrate wavefront sensorless aberration correction in a two-photon excited fluorescence microscope. Using analysis of the image-formation process, we have developed an optimized correction scheme permitting image-quality improvement with minimal additional exposure of the sample. We show that, as a result, our correction process induces little(More)