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Microscale four-leaf clover-shaped structures are formed by self-assembly of anionic and cationic porphyrins. Depending on the metal complexed in the porphyrin macrocycle (Zn or Sn), the porphyrin cores are either electron donors or electron acceptors. All four combinations of these two metals in cationic tetra(N-ethanol-4-pyridinium)porphyrin and anionic(More)
Letter-scanning cameras (LSCs) form the front-end imaging systems for virtually all mail-scanning systems that are currently used to automatically sort mail products. As with any vision-dependent technology, the quality of the images generated by the camera is fundamental to the overall performance of the system. We present novel techniques for objective(More)
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