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BACKGROUND The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves outcomes in patients with node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer. Given trastuzumab's high cost, we aimed to estimate its cost-effectiveness by heterogeneity in age and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, which has(More)
BACKGROUND Few cohort studies of the health effects of urban air pollution have been published. There is evidence, most consistently in studies with individual measurement of social factors, that more deprived populations are particularly sensitive to air pollution effects. METHODS Records from the 1996 New Zealand census were anonymously and(More)
In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to compare the characteristics of patients presenting with chronic fatigue (CF) and related syndromes in eight international centres and to subclassify these subjects based on symptom profiles. The validity of the subclasses was then tested against clinical data. METHOD Subjects with a clinical diagnosis of CF completed a 119-item(More)
Multi-level research that attempts to describe ecological effects in themselves (for example, the effect on individual health from living in deprived communities), while also including individual level effects (for example, the effect of personal socioeconomic disadvantage), is now prominent in research on the socioeconomic determinants of health and(More)
BACKGROUND Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption) (objective 1); Health(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence of associations between neighborhood built environments and transport-related physical activity (PA) is accumulating, but few studies have investigated associations with leisure-time PA. OBJECTIVE We investigated associations of five objectively measured characteristics of the neighborhood built environment-destination access, street(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the extent to which educational inequalities in relation to mortality widened in Norway during 1960-2000 and which causes of death were the main drivers of this disparity. DESIGN Nationally representative prospective study. SETTING Four cohorts of the Norwegian population aged 45-64 years in 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 and(More)