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In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether insulating existing houses increases indoor temperatures and improves occupants' health and wellbeing. DESIGN Community based, cluster, single blinded randomised study. SETTING Seven low income communities in New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS 1350 households containing 4407 participants. INTERVENTION Installation of a standard(More)
What is the lag time between income inequality and health status? Income inequality has been associated with poorer self rated health in the United States. 1 Possible mechanisms linking income distribution to health include: variations in a person's access to life opportunities and material resources (for example, health care, education); social cohesion,(More)
BACKGROUND Few cohort studies of the health effects of urban air pollution have been published. There is evidence, most consistently in studies with individual measurement of social factors, that more deprived populations are particularly sensitive to air pollution effects. METHODS Records from the 1996 New Zealand census were anonymously and(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine the association of regional income inequality within New Zealand with mortality among 25-64 year olds. DESIGN Individual census and mortality records were linked over the 1991-94 period. Income inequality (Gini coefficients) and average household income variables were calculated for 35 regions. "Individual level" variables(More)
AIM To measure the association of income, education, occupational class, small area socio-economic deprivation, car access and labour force status with mortality among 25-64 year old males and females using the 1991 census-cohort of the New Zealand Census-Mortality Study. METHODS Mortality records for 1991-94 were anonymously and probabilistically linked(More)
BACKGROUND A "diet high in sodium" is the second most important dietary risk factor for health loss identified in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. We therefore aimed to model health gains and costs (savings) of salt reduction interventions related to salt substitution and maximum levels in bread, including by ethnicity and age. We also ranked these(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to compare the characteristics of patients presenting with chronic fatigue (CF) and related syndromes in eight international centres and to subclassify these subjects based on symptom profiles. The validity of the subclasses was then tested against clinical data. METHOD Subjects with a clinical diagnosis of CF completed a 119-item(More)