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We examined the association of income inequality measured at the metropolitan area (MA) and county levels with individual self-rated health. Individual-level data were drawn from 259,762 respondents to the March Current Population Survey in 1996 and 1998. Income inequality and average income were calculated from 1990 census data, the former using Gini(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the independent associations of labour force status and socioeconomic position with death by suicide. DESIGN Cohort study assembled by anonymous and probabilistic record linkage of census and mortality records. PARTICIPANTS 2.04 million respondents to the New Zealand 1991 census aged 18-64 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Suicide in(More)
BACKGROUND Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed(More)
OBJECTIVE Increasing population levels of physical activity is high on the health agenda in many countries. There is some evidence that neighbourhood access to public open space can increase physical activity by providing easier and more direct access to opportunities for exercise. This national study examines the relationship between travel time access to(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnic disparities in cancer survival have been documented in many populations and cancer types. The causes of these inequalities are not well understood but may include disease and patient characteristics, treatment differences and health service factors. Survival was compared in a cohort of Maori (Indigenous) and non-Maori New Zealanders with(More)
In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than(More)
AIMS Maori and Pacific mortality rates are underestimated due to different recording of ethnicity between mortality and census data--the so-called numerator-denominator bias. Ethnicity and deprivation are strongly associated with mortality in New Zealand, but it is unclear what are the independent and overlapping effects of each on health. The objectives of(More)
BACKGROUND We examine incidence trends for 18 adult cancers, by ethnicity and socioeconomic position in New Zealand. METHODS The 1981 to 2001 censuses were linked to subsequent cancer registrations, giving 47.5 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS ETHNICITY: Pooled over time, differences were marked: Pacific and Māori rates of cervical, endometrial,(More)