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OBJECTIVES To determine the independent associations of labour force status and socioeconomic position with death by suicide. DESIGN Cohort study assembled by anonymous and probabilistic record linkage of census and mortality records. PARTICIPANTS 2.04 million respondents to the New Zealand 1991 census aged 18-64 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Suicide in(More)
We examined the association of income inequality measured at the metropolitan area (MA) and county levels with individual self-rated health. Individual-level data were drawn from 259,762 respondents to the March Current Population Survey in 1996 and 1998. Income inequality and average income were calculated from 1990 census data, the former using Gini(More)
BACKGROUND Obesogenic environments may be an important contextual explanation for the growing obesity epidemic, including its unequal social distribution. The objective of this study was to determine whether geographic access to fast-food outlets varied by neighborhood deprivation and school socioeconomic ranking, and whether any such associations differed(More)
BACKGROUND Computerized record linkage is commonly used in cohort studies to ascertain the study outcome, and as such its accuracy classifying the outcome can be described using the standard epidemiological terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). METHOD We describe a 'duplicate method' to calculate the PPV of record linkage when each(More)
The use of cannabis is widespread throughout the world, and in many countries is increasing (1). After alcohol, the most frequently found psychoactive substance in the blood of motorists involved in traffic crashes is cannabis. The very high costs, in human and financial terms, of road traffic crashes underscores the need for a clear understanding of the(More)
In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than(More)
OBJECTIVE Increasing population levels of physical activity is high on the health agenda in many countries. There is some evidence that neighbourhood access to public open space can increase physical activity by providing easier and more direct access to opportunities for exercise. This national study examines the relationship between travel time access to(More)
BACKGROUND Few cohort studies of the health effects of urban air pollution have been published. There is evidence, most consistently in studies with individual measurement of social factors, that more deprived populations are particularly sensitive to air pollution effects. METHODS Records from the 1996 New Zealand census were anonymously and(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to compare the characteristics of patients presenting with chronic fatigue (CF) and related syndromes in eight international centres and to subclassify these subjects based on symptom profiles. The validity of the subclasses was then tested against clinical data. METHOD Subjects with a clinical diagnosis of CF completed a 119-item(More)
BACKGROUND Ethnic disparities in cancer survival have been documented in many populations and cancer types. The causes of these inequalities are not well understood but may include disease and patient characteristics, treatment differences and health service factors. Survival was compared in a cohort of Maori (Indigenous) and non-Maori New Zealanders with(More)