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W HY HAVE S O M E countries grown rich while others remain poor? It is hard to think of a more fundamental question for economists to answer. According to the definition used by the World Bank's 1996 World Development Report, over 4.5 billion of the world's 5.6 billion people live in developing countries , and so a better understanding of what generates(More)
We describe the metabolic engineering of two strains of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius to divert their fermentative carbon flux from a mixed acid pathway, to one in which ethanol becomes the major product. This involved elimination of the lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase pathways by disruption of the ldh and pflB genes, respectively,(More)
I distinguish two types of macroeconomic models. The first type are top-down models in which some or all agents are capable of understanding the whole picture and use this superior information to determine their optimal plans. The second type are bottom-up models in which all agents experience cognitive limitations. As a result, these agents are only(More)
The gene coding for carboxypeptidase G2 was cloned from Pseudomonas sp. strain RS-16 into Escherichia coli W5445 by inserting Sau3A-generated DNA fragments into the BamHI site of pBR322. The plasmid isolated, pNM1, was restriction mapped, and the position of the gene on the 5.8-megadalton insert was pinpointed by subcloning. The expression of(More)
Three variations to the structure of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus were made to try to change the substrate specificity from lactate to malate: Asp197----Asn, Thr246----Gly, and Gln102----Arg). Each modification shifts the specificity from lactate to malate, although only the(More)
Analysis of the mechanism and structure of lactate dehydrogenases is summarized in a map of the catalytic pathway. Chemical probes, single tryptophan residues inserted at specific sites and a crystal structure reveal slow movements of the protein framework that discriminate between closely related small substrates. Only small and correctly charged(More)
The biochemical response of the microorganisms Lipomyces starkeyi (Lod & Rij), Escherichia coli K-12 W3110, Bacillus subtilis 168 (Marburg) and Pseudomonas sp. strain TTO1 to the presence of growth-inhibitory concentrations of paraquat was studied. Paraquat was added to each culture at a concentration previously determined to reduce the culture growth rate(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the Erwinia chrysanthemi NCPPB 1066 gene coding for the chemotherapeutic enzyme L-asparaginase has been determined. The structural gene consists of an open reading frame commencing with an ATG start codon of 1044 bp followed by a TGA stop codon. Confirmation of the nucleotide sequence was obtained by comparing the(More)
The L-amino acid oxidase (L-aao) from Bacillus carotarum 2Pfa was purified to homogeneity, as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, from crude sonicated cell extract by a combination of anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The purified enzyme was a dimer with a native relative molecular mass of approximately 102,000 to 115,000 and(More)
L-asparaginase from Erwinia provides an alternative to the enzyme from E. coli for the effective treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. A procedure was required for the large-scale partial purification of the recombinant Erwinia enzyme cloned and expressed in Erwinia. Enzyme was extracted from Erwinia at high pH and extraneous protein precipitated at(More)