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The epidermal cornified cell envelope (CE) is a complex protein-lipid composite that replaces the plasma membrane of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. This lamellar structure is essential for the barrier function of the skin and has the ability to prevent the loss of water and ions and to protect from environmental hazards. The major protein of the(More)
Small proline-rich (SPR) proteins are structural components of the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia. They are subdivided into three families, i.e., SPR1, SPR2, and SPR3, of which the SPR2 family is the most complex. To understand the significance of this complexity, we have isolated 11 mouse Sprr2 genes, constructed a provisional(More)
The cornified cell envelope (CE) is a specialized structure involved in barrier function in stratified squamous epithelia, and is assembled by transglutaminase cross-linking of several proteins. Murine forestomach epithelium undergoes particularly rigorous mechanical trauma, and these CEs contain the highest known content of small proline-rich proteins(More)
Keratins 1 (K1) and 10 (K10) are the predominant cytoskeletal intermediate filaments of epidermal cells during transition from the proliferative to the terminal differentiation stage. In situ, formation of the K1/K10 intermediate filament network occurs in the cytoplasm of cells with a preexisting cytoskeleton composed of keratins 5 and 14. To define(More)
The cornified cell envelope (CE) is a specialized structure which contributes barrier function to stratified squamous epithelial cells. It is composed of an amalgam of several structural proteins that are rendered insoluble by isopeptide bond crosslinking by transglutaminases. One set of the structural proteins present in CEs of most such epithelia are the(More)
Abstract Small PRoline Rich (SPRR) proteins are primary constituents of the cornified cell envelope, necessary to create a permeability barrier across the body's surface. The family of murine Sprr genes has diversified, enabling the body to construct slightly different types of barriers as needed for backskin, mouth, tongue, etc. The Sprr genes have(More)
Protein hyper- or hypophosphorylation induced by okadaic acid (OA) treatment was examined using quiescent cultures of the BALB/MK-2 mouse epidermal keratinocytes. Treatment with OA enhanced the phosphorylation of five proteins with molecular weights of 65,000, 55,000, 50,000, 28,000 and 15,000 (p65, p55, p50, p28, and p15, respectively) and decreased that(More)
In the final stages of terminal differentiation in the epidermis and other squamous epithelia, a approximately 15 nm thick protein layer called the cornified cell envelope (CE) assembles on the keratinocytes' inner surface. Its constituent proteins are covalently crosslinked by the action of transglutaminases. Recent studies have indicated that the(More)
We found that dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) at concentrations of 2.5% induced apoptosis in SV40-immortalized human keratinocytes, while normal keratinocytes were arrested at the boundary of G1/S phase under the same conditions. DMSO-induced apoptosis in SV-40 immortalized keratinocytes was not associated with change in phosphorylated state of the retinoblastoma(More)
The Ku protein is a complex of two subunits, Ku70 and Ku80. Ku plays an important role in DNA-PKcs-dependent double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination, and in growth regulation, which is DNA-PKcs-independent. We studied the expression and the subcellular localization of Ku and DNA-PKcs throughout the cell cycle in several established human cell(More)