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The binding of cytokines to the gp130 receptor activates the STAT3, MEK/MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways. To assess the relative importance of these pathways in promoting the survival of cytokine-dependent neurons, we conditionally inactivated STAT3 in mice and inhibited MEK, PI3K, and Akt in cultured neurons using pharmacological reagents and by(More)
We generated mice carrying a STAT3 allele amenable to Cre-mediated deletion and intercrossed them with Mx-Cre transgenic mice, in which the expression of Cre recombinase can be induced by type I interferon. Interferon-induced deletion of STAT3 occurred very efficiently (more than 90%) in the liver and slightly less efficiently (about 70%) in the bone(More)
Growing evidence suggests that aberrant production of inflammatory cytokines within the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to the development of pathological conditions. To test the cause-effect relationship between the overproduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the CNS and the onset of neuropathological changes, we have generated transgenic mice in(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is overproduced in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and, based on its multiple stimulatory effects on cells of the immune system and on vascular endothelia, osteoclasts, and synovial fibroblasts, is believed to participate in the development and clinical manifestations of this disease. In this study we have analysed(More)
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) pathways play a role in genome defence and have been extensively studied, yet how repetitive elements in the genome are identified is still unclear. It has been suggested that they may produce aberrant transcripts (aRNA) that are converted by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) into double-stranded RNA (dsRNA),(More)
Production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in the brain is increased in various diseases. To investigate the relationships between the effect of overproduction of IL-6 in the brain on central and peripheral production of TNF, IL-1 beta and IL-6 itself, we used transgenic mice(More)
The translation factor IF6 is shared by the Archaea and the Eukarya, but is not found in Bacteria. The properties of eukaryal IF6 (eIF6) have been extensively studied, but remain somewhat elusive. eIF6 behaves as a ribosome-anti-association factor and is involved in miRNA-mediated gene silencing; however, it also seems to participate in ribosome synthesis(More)
The complex spatial and paracrine relationships between the various liver histotypes are essential for proper functioning of the hepatic parenchymal cells. Only within a correct tissue organization, in fact, they stably maintain their identity and differentiated phenotype. The loss of histotype identity, which invariably occurs in the primary hepatocytes in(More)
To assess the effects of constitutive hepatitis C virus (HCV) gene expression on liver, transgenic mice carrying the entire HCV open reading frame inserted in the alpha1 antitrypsin (A1AT) gene were generated. Expression of A1AT/HCV mRNA was found to be mainly limited to perivascular areas of the liver as indicated by in situ hybridization analysis. HCV(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. Viral persistence and pathogenesis rely mainly on the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, including lipid metabolism and innate immunity. Recently, autophagy has emerged as a cellular pathway, playing a role in several aspects of HCV infection. This(More)