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Keratinocytes are continuously in contact with external stimuli and have the capacity to produce several soluble mediators. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized, among others, by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The functional responses of keratinocytes to different PAMPs have not yet been fully established. Here we show that(More)
The mechanisms preventing detrimental T-cell responses against commensal skin bacteria remain elusive. Using monocyte-derived and skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we demonstrate that epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), the DCs in the most superficial layer of the skin, have a poor capacity to internalize bacteria because of low expression of FcγRIIa.(More)
M2 macrophages suppress inflammation in numerous disorders, including tumour formation, infection and obesity. However, the exact role of M2 macrophages in the context of several other diseases is still largely undefined. We here show that human M2 macrophages promote inflammation instead of suppressing inflammation on simultaneous exposure to complexed IgG(More)
BACKGROUND Lactobacilli are probiotic bacteria that are frequently tested in the management of allergic diseases or gastroenteritis. It is hypothesized that these probiotics have immunoregulatory properties and promote mucosal tolerance, which is in part mediated by regulatory T cells (Treg cells). On the basis of pathogenic or tissue-specific priming,(More)
OBJECTIVE To study whether acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells survive in a human testicular cell culture system. DESIGN Experimental laboratory study. SETTING Reproductive biology laboratory, academic medical center. PATIENT(S) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from three patients and testicular cells from three other patients. (More)
C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 on dendritic cells elicit protective immunity against fungal infections through induction of T(H)1 and T(H)-17 cellular responses. Fungal recognition by dectin-1 on human dendritic cells engages the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 module to activate NF-κB. Here we demonstrate that Malt1 recruitment is pivotal to T(H)-17 immunity by(More)
BACKGROUND Dendritic cells (DC) have been proposed to facilitate sexual transmission of HIV-1 by capture of the virus in the mucosa and subsequent transmission to CD4+ T cells. Several T cell subsets can be identified in humans: naïve T cells (TN) that initiate an immune response to new antigens, and memory T cells that respond to previously encountered(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children, the elderly, and immune-compromised individuals. CD4 and CD8 T cells play a crucial role in the elimination of RSV from the infected lung, but T cell memory is not sufficient to completely prevent reinfections. The nature of the adaptive immune(More)
BACKGROUND Dendritic cells (DCs) can act both as innate cells in host defense and as antigen-presenting cells for naive T cells in adaptive immunity. These functions, among others, are determined by the level of production of particular cytokines. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by an initial phase predominated(More)
BACKGROUND Recombinant allergens are under investigation for replacing allergen extracts in immunotherapy. Site-directed mutagenesis has been suggested as a strategy to develop hypoallergenic molecules that will reduce the risk of side effects. For decades, chemically modified allergen extracts have been used for the same reason. AIM To evaluate whether(More)