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The relative contribution of advantageous and neutral mutations to the evolutionary process is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Current estimates suggest that whereas Drosophila, mice, and bacteria have undergone extensive adaptive evolution, hominids show little or no evidence of adaptive evolution in protein-coding sequences. This may be a(More)
The effective population size (N(e)) is one of the most fundamental parameters in population genetics. It is thought to vary across the genome as a consequence of differences in the rate of recombination and the density of selected sites due to the processes of genetic hitchhiking and background selection. Although it is known that there is intragenomic(More)
The role of adaptation is a fundamental question in molecular evolution. Theory predicts that species with large effective population sizes should undergo a higher rate of adaptive evolution than species with low effective population sizes if adaptation is limited by the supply of mutations. Previous analyses have appeared to support this conjecture because(More)
Sex-biased genes are genes with a preferential or specific expression in one sex and tend to show an accelerated rate of evolution in animals. Various hypotheses--which are not mutually exclusive--have been put forth to explain observed patterns of rapid evolution. One possible explanation is positive selection, but this has been shown only in few animal(More)
NAD(+) is well known as a crucial cofactor in the redox balance of metabolism. Moreover, NAD(+) is degraded in ADP-ribosyl transfer reactions, which are important components of multitudinous signalling reactions. These include reactions linked to DNA repair and aging. In the present study, using the concept of EFMs (elementary flux modes), we established(More)
Several important signaling pathways require NAD as substrate, thereby leading to significant consumption of the molecule. Because NAD is also an essential redox carrier, its continuous resynthesis is vital. In higher eukaryotes, maintenance of compartmentalized NAD pools is critical, but so far rather little is known about the regulation and subcellular(More)
Gene duplications are one of the most important mechanisms for the origin of evolutionary novelties. Even though various models of the fate of duplicated genes have been established, current knowledge about the role of divergent selection after gene duplication is rather limited. In this study, we analyzed sequence divergence in response to neo- and(More)
For over 50 years, the great tit (Parus major) has been a model species for research in evolutionary, ecological and behavioural research; in particular, learning and cognition have been intensively studied. Here, to provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind these important traits, we de novo assemble a great tit reference genome and(More)
It is likely that the strength of selection acting upon a mutation varies through time due to changes in the environment. However, most population genetic theory assumes that the strength of selection remains constant. Here we investigate the consequences of fluctuating selection pressures on the quantification of adaptive evolution using McDonald-Kreitman(More)
NAD is best known as an electron carrier and a cosubstrate of various redox reactions. However, over the past 20 years, NAD(+) has been shown to be a key signaling molecule that mediates post-translational protein modifications and serves as precursor of ADP-ribose-containing messenger molecules, which are involved in calcium mobilization. In contrast to(More)