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Binding of particulate antigens by antigen-presenting cells is a critical step in immune activation. Previously, we demonstrated that uric acid crystals are potent adjuvants, initiating a robust adaptive immune response. However, the mechanisms of activation are unknown. By using atomic force microscopy as a tool for real-time single-cell activation(More)
To develop novel hybrid paclitaxel (PTX) nanocrystals, in which bioactivatable (MMPSense® 750 FAST) and near infrared (Flamma Fluor® FPR-648) fluorophores are physically incorporated, and to evaluate their anticancer efficacy and diagnostic properties in breast cancer xenograft murine model. The pure and hybrid paclitaxel nanocrystals were prepared by an(More)
Amorphous solids and crystalline salts are both of interest as a means of improving the dissolution characteristics and apparent solubility of poorly water soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients which have low bioavailability in humans. The theory and selection of both crystalline drug substance salt forms and amorphous products have been extensively(More)
The amorphous form of a drug may provide enhanced solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability but will also potentially crystallize over time. Miscible polymeric additives provide a means to increase physical stability. Understanding the miscibility of drug–polymer systems is of interest to optimize the formulation of such systems. The purpose of this(More)
Nanocrystal formulation has become a viable solution for delivering poorly soluble drugs including chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this study was to examine cellular uptake of paclitaxel nanocrystals by confocal imaging and concentration measurement. It was found that drug nanocrystals could be internalized by KB cells at much higher concentrations(More)
The solid-state properties of pharmaceutical salts, which are dependent on the counterion used to form the salt, are critical for successful development of a stable dosage form. In order to better understand the relationship between counterion and salt properties, 11 salts of procaine, which is a base, were synthesized and characterized using a variety of(More)
Camptothecin (CPT) is a potent, broad spectrum antitumor agent that inhibits the activity of DNA topoisomerase I. Due to its poor solubility and stability and consequent delivery challenges, its clinical use is nevertheless limited. We aim to use nanocrystal formulation as a way to circumvent the difficult solubilization practice. Specifically, camptothecin(More)
Lattice energies of drug crystals are closely associated with many important physicochemical properties including polymorphism of the crystals. Current quantum mechanical methods that can be applied to calculate the lattice energy of most drug crystals are not capable of fully considering the van der Waals interaction energy, a dominant component in the(More)
Based on the study of the existing methods and the WinPcaP, aimed with the ARP spoofing attacks achieved mainly by disguising the gateway, the thesis presents a method of defending ARP spoofing attacks based on WinPcaP. The method is: Setting filtering rules by filtering mechanisms of the WinPcaP, and the system just captures the ARP packets flowing through(More)