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Mutations at the mouse Fused locus have pleiotropic developmental effects, including the formation of axial duplications in homozygous embryos. The product of the Fused locus, Axin, displays similarities to RGS (Regulators of G-Protein Signaling) and Dishevelled proteins. Mutant Fused alleles that cause axial duplications disrupt the major mRNA, suggesting(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that in the hippocampus the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) requires de novo protein synthesis. To investigate the role of protein synthesis in the maintenance of LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn, which may be relevant to hyperalgesia, protein synthesis inhibitor (either(More)
This paper describes automatic speech recognition systems that satisfy two technological objectives. First, we seek to improve the automatic labeling of prosody, in order to aid future research in automatic speech understanding. Second, we seek to apply statistical speech recognition models of prosody for the purpose of reducing the word error rate of an(More)
Compelling evidence has shown that in hippocampus tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) at pathological concentration inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP), a synaptic model of learning and memory. In the present work we investigated the role of TNF-alpha in LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn, which is relevant to pathological(More)
Compelling evidence shows that the adjacent uninjured primary afferents play an important role in the development of neuropathic pain after nerve injury. The underlying mechanisms, however, are largely unknown. In the present study, the selective motor fiber injury was performed by L5 ventral root transection (L5 VRT), and p38 activation in dorsal root(More)
Extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) were measured in the locus coeruleus (LC) during morphine withdrawal by using microdialysis in conscious morphine-dependent Sprague-Dawley rats. Guide cannulae were implanted chronically and rats were given intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of morphine (26 nmol/1(More)
Several lines of evidence have shown that in some brain regions brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for long-term potentiation (LTP), a synaptic model of memory storage. In the present work we evaluate the role of BDNF in LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn, a synaptic model of pain memory. We found that spinal(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted predominantly in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue. Recently, it has been reported that FGF21-Transgenic mice can extend their lifespan compared with wild type counterparts. Thus, we hypothesize that FGF21 may play some roles in aging of organisms. In this study d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging(More)
Many studies have shown that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as a neurotransmitter, is involved in plastic changes of synaptic transmission in central nervous system. In the present study, we tested whether extracellular ATP can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn. The results showed the following: (1)(More)
Previous studies have shown that Src-family kinases (SFKs) are selectively activated in spinal microglia following peripheral nerve injury and the activated SFKs play a key role for the development of neuropathic pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism, in the present study the effect of SFKs on long-term potentiation (LTP) at C-fiber synapses in(More)