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The use of antibiotics may accelerate the development of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacteria which shade health risks to humans and animals. The emerging of ARGs in the water environment is becoming an increasing worldwide concern. Hundreds of various ARGs encoding resistance to a broad range of antibiotics have been found in microorganisms(More)
Activated sludge (AS) contains highly complex microbial communities. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS samples from 14 sewage treatment plants of Asia (mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore), and North America (Canada and the United States). A total of 259 K effective sequences of 16S(More)
This study demonstrated that hydrogen-producing acidogenic sludge could agglutinate into granules in a well-mixed reactor treating a synthetic sucrose-containing wastewater at 26 degrees C, pH 5.5, with 6 h of hydraulic retention. A typical matured granule is 1.6 mm in diameter, 1.038 g/mL in density, 11% in ash content, and over 50 m/h in settling(More)
The removal of 11 antibiotics of 6 classes, that is, two beta-lactams (ampicillin and cefalexin), two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine), three fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), one tetracyclines (tetracycline), two macorlides (roxithromycin and anhydro-erythromycin), and one others (trimethoprim), in activated(More)
Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) is a popular technique for large-scale optimization problems in machine learning. In order to parallelize SGD, minibatch training needs to be employed to reduce the communication cost. However, an increase in minibatch size typically decreases the rate of convergence. This paper introduces a technique based on approximate(More)
In this study, dideoxy sequencing and 454 high-throughput sequencing were used to analyze diversities of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and the 16S rRNA genes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in six municipal wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that AOB amoA genes were quite diverse in different(More)
In this study, we successfully demonstrated that 454 pyrosequencing was a powerful approach for investigating the bacterial communities in the activated sludge, digestion sludge, influent, and effluent samples of a full scale wastewater treatment plant treating saline sewage. For each sample, 18,808 effective sequences were selected and utilized to do the(More)
This study applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze potentially pathogenic bacteria in activated sludge from 14 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across four countries (China, U.S., Canada, and Singapore), plus the influent and effluent of one of the 14 WWTPs. A total of 370,870 16S rRNA gene sequences with average length of 207 bps(More)
The diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the sediment of the Pearl River Estuary were investigated by cloning and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). From one sediment sample S16, 36 AOA OTUs (3% cutoff) were obtained from three clone libraries constructed using three primer(More)
Due to the advanced development of fluorogenic chemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has become an emerging technique for the detection and quantification of microorganisms in the environment. Compared with the conventional hybridization- and PCR-based techniques, qRT-PCR not only has better sensitivity and reproducibility,(More)