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The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is(More)
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were(More)
Olfactory receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate olfactory chemosensation and serve as chemosensors in other tissues. We find that Olfr78, an olfactory receptor expressed in the kidney, responds to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Olfr78 is expressed in the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus, where it mediates renin secretion in response to(More)
BACKGROUND Germin-like superfamily members are ubiquitously expressed in various plant species and play important roles in plant development and defense. Although several GLPs have been identified in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), their roles in development and defense remain unknown. In this research, we study the spatiotemporal expression of AhGLPs in(More)
We present NewsQA, a challenging machine comprehension dataset of over 100,000 question-answer pairs. Crowdworkers supply questions and answers based on a set of over 10,000 news articles from CNN, with answers consisting in spans of text from the corresponding articles. We collect this dataset through a four-stage process designed to solicit exploratory(More)
The atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in complex with PAR3 and PAR6 is required for axon-dendrite differentiation, but the upstream factors responsible for regulating its activity are largely unknown. Here, we report that in cultured hippocampal neurons aPKC is directly regulated by Dishevelled (Dvl), an immediate downstream effector of Wnt. We found that(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that elicits flaccid paralysis by enzymatic cleavage of the exocytic machinery component SNAP25 in motor nerve terminals. However, recent evidence suggests that the neurotoxic activity of BoNT/A is not restricted to the periphery, but also reaches the CNS after retrograde axonal transport.(More)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), generally longer than 200 nucleotides and with poor protein coding potential, are usually considered collectively as a heterogeneous class of RNAs. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that lncRNAs can involve in various critical biological processes and a number of complex human diseases. Not only the primary(More)
Phytochromes are multidomain photoswitches that drive light perception in plants and microorganisms by coupling photoreversible isomerization of their bilin chromophore to various signaling cascades. How changes in bilin conformation affect output by these photoreceptors remains poorly resolved and might include several species-specific routes. Here, we(More)
In this study, a suboptimal controller for the pitch plane motion of a flexible launch vehicle is presented. Three sensors for measuring the motion, angular position sensor, angular rate sensor and accelerometer, are considered and assumed to be at given positions on a rocket described by a ninth-order state-space dynamical model, including three bending(More)