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SPINDLY (SPY) is a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana that also functions in previously undefined pathways. The N terminus of SPY contains a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 10 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). GIGANTEA (GI) was recovered from a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with the TPR(More)
The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) protein negatively regulates the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. SPY is an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) with a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 10 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR). OGTs add a GlcNAc monosaccharide to serine/threonine residues of nuclear and(More)
It has been known for decades that red light pretreatment has complex effects on subsequent phototropic sensitivity of etiolated seedlings. Here, we demonstrate that brief pulses of red light given 2 h prior to phototropic induction by low fluence rates of blue light prevent the blue light-induced loss of green fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin 1(More)
Histidine kinases, used for environmental sensing by bacterial two-component systems, are involved in regulation of bacterial gene expression, chemotaxis, phototaxis, and virulence. Flavin-containing domains function as light-sensory modules in plant and algal phototropins and in fungal blue-light receptors. We have discovered that the prokaryotes Brucella(More)
Plants adapt to environmental light conditions by photoreceptor-mediated physiological responses, but the mechanism by which photoreceptors perceive and transduce the signals is still unresolved. Here, we used 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and mass spectrometry to characterize early molecular events induced by short blue light exposures in(More)
Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant blue-light receptors that mediate phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, rapid inhibition of growth of etiolated seedlings, and leaf expansion in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Their N-terminal region contains two light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains, which bind flavin mononucleotide and form a(More)
Bacteria rely on two-component signaling systems in their adaptive responses to environmental changes. Typically, the two-component system consists of a sensory histidine kinase that signals by transferring a phosphoryl group to a secondary response regulator that ultimately relays the signal to the cell. Some of these sensors use PAS (Per-Arnt-Sin)(More)
The 14-3-3 λ isoform is required for normal stomatal opening mediated by PHOT2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis phototropin2 (PHOT2) interacts with the λ-isoform 14-3-3 protein both in yeast two-hybrid screening and in an in vitro pull-down assay. Further yeast two-hybrid analysis also showed that the PHOT2 C-terminal kinase domain was required for the(More)
Phototropins (phot) sense blue light through the two N-terminal chromophore binding LOV domains and activate the C-terminal kinase domain. The resulting phototropin autophosphorylation is essential for biological activity. We identified the A1 subunit of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as interacting with full-length phot2 in yeast and also(More)