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Inflammation, a self-defensive reaction against various pathogenic stimuli, may become harmful self-damaging process. Increasing evidence has linked chronic inflammation to a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis. In the central nervous system, microglia, the resident(More)
Peripheral afferent input regulates the expression of dopaminergic properties in a population of local circuit intrinsic neurons of the rodent olfactory bulb. Lesions of the olfactory receptor neurons produced in the mouse by intranasal irrigation with either ZnSO4 or Triton X-100 and in the rat by surgical deafferentation or axotomy are associated with a(More)
The serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) innervation of the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) was examined by light and electron microscopic radioautography following intraventricular infusion of [3H]5-HT. The [3H]5-HT labeled processes were characterized with respect to their regional distribution, ultrastructure and relationships with all neurons,(More)
We have studied the responses to electrical and chemical stimulation of the ventrolateral medulla in the chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated rat. Locations of most active pressor responses were compared to regions containing neurons labeled immunocytochemically for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme catalyzing(More)
The immunocytochemical localization of tyrosine hydroxylase is examined during early ontogeny in the fetal rat brain in order to determine the age of first detection and subsequent cellular localization of the enzyme and the developmental characteristics of the immature catecholaminergic neurons. Fetal atlases of the tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled neurons are(More)
Anterograde, retrograde, and combined axonal transport methods were used to describe the descending efferent projections of a region of rostral ventrolateral medullary reticular formation important in cardiovascular control. We have termed this region, which contains C1 adrenaline-synthesizing neurons, the nucleus reticularis rostroventrolateralis (RVL).(More)
Neurons containing the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) but lacking either tyrosine hydroxylase or serotonin were found in the spinal cord of neonatal and adult rats by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. The majority of these neurons localized to area X of Rexed contact ependyma. Thus, spinal AADC neurons have the enzymatic(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, is expressed within central and peripheral catecholaminergic cells. To delineate DNA sequences necessary for tissue-specific expression of the rat TH gene, transgenic mice were produced containing 0.15 kb, 2.4 kb, and 9.0 kb of 5' flanking(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase [tyrosine monooxygenase, L-tyrosine, tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating), EC] was highly purified from rat caudate nuclei. When the pure hydroxylase was phosphorylated by incubation with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and [32P]ATP, 32P and tyrosine hydroxylase activity were detected after(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) expression is increased in inflammatory diseases. We demonstrated previously that inhibitors of TGase 2 reduce nitric oxide (NO) generation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglial cell line. However, the precise mechanism by which TGase 2 promotes inflammation remains unclear. We found that TGase 2 activates the(More)