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The immunocytochemical localization of tyrosine hydroxylase is examined during early ontogeny in the fetal rat brain in order to determine the age of first detection and subsequent cellular localization of the enzyme and the developmental characteristics of the immature catecholaminergic neurons. Fetal atlases of the tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled neurons are(More)
Inflammation, a self-defensive reaction against various pathogenic stimuli, may become harmful self-damaging process. Increasing evidence has linked chronic inflammation to a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis. In the central nervous system, microglia, the resident(More)
Peripheral afferent input regulates the expression of dopaminergic properties in a population of local circuit intrinsic neurons of the rodent olfactory bulb. Lesions of the olfactory receptor neurons produced in the mouse by intranasal irrigation with either ZnSO4 or Triton X-100 and in the rat by surgical deafferentation or axotomy are associated with a(More)
Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative human brain disorders. We sought to investigate molecular signaling mechanisms that govern activation of microglia in apoptotic neuronal degeneration. We report here that the active form of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) was released into the(More)
Anterograde, retrograde, and combined axonal transport methods were used to describe the descending efferent projections of a region of rostral ventrolateral medullary reticular formation important in cardiovascular control. We have termed this region, which contains C1 adrenaline-synthesizing neurons, the nucleus reticularis rostroventrolateralis (RVL).(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, is expressed within central and peripheral catecholaminergic cells. To delineate DNA sequences necessary for tissue-specific expression of the rat TH gene, transgenic mice were produced containing 0.15 kb, 2.4 kb, and 9.0 kb of 5' flanking(More)
We have previously demonstrated that the active form of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (actMMP-3) is released from dopamine(DA)rgic neurons undergoing apoptosis. Herein, whether actMMP-3 might be generated intracellularly, and if so, whether it is involved in apoptosis of DArgic neurons itself was investigated in primary cultured DArgic neurons of wild-type,(More)
In Parkinson disease (PD), the dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra undergo degeneration. While the exact mechanism for the degeneration is still not completely understood, neuronal apoptosis and inflammation are thought to play roles. We have recently obtained evidence that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 plays a crucial role in the(More)
Regional loss of immunohistochemically identified neurons in serial sections through the brainstem of 4 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease was compared with equivalent sections from 4 age-matched control subjects. In the Parkinson brains, the catecholamine cell groups of the midbrain, pons, and medulla showed variable neuropathological changes.(More)
Peripheral deafferentation of the rodent olfactory bulb results in loss of dopamine content, tyrosine hydroxylase activity and immunocytochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase in juxtaglomerular dopamine neurons. Reinnervation of the bulb by afferent neurons results in the return of all parameters to control levels suggesting that the dopamine neurons(More)