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In developing hippocampal neurons in culture, the evolutionarily conserved polarity complex mPar3/mPar6/aPKC selectively accumulates at the tip of one, and only one, of the immature neurites of a neuron and thus specifies the axon and generates neuronal polarity. How mPar3/mPar6 is enriched at the tip of the nascent axon, but not the dendrites, is not fully(More)
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog egg membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most(More)
We observed an induction of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA in the rat retina after systemic administration of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonists xylazine and clonidine. A single injection of xylazine or clonidine transiently increased bFGF mRNA. Preinjection of yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, completely inhibited this increase. Higher(More)
Collapse of membrane lipid asymmetry is a hallmark of blood coagulation. TMEM16F of the TMEM16 family that includes TMEM16A/B Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) is linked to Scott syndrome with deficient Ca(2+)-dependent lipid scrambling. We generated TMEM16F knockout mice that exhibit bleeding defects and protection in an arterial thrombosis model(More)
TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify(More)
Focal mechanical injury to the retina has been shown to slow or prevent photoreceptor degeneration near the lesion site in two animal models of retinal degeneration, inherited retinal dystrophy in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) and light damage in albino rats. Thus, when injured, the rat retina activates a self-protective mechanism to minimize damage.(More)
In the developing mammalian brain, a large fraction of excitatory synapses initially contain only N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and thus are "silent" at the resting membrane potential. As development progresses, synapses acquire alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPA-Rs). Although this maturation of excitatory synapses has(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene expression by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in cultured rat Müller cells and to study the mechanism of the induction. METHODS Müller cells were obtained from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat retinas and cultured in essential modified(More)
Activated protein C (APC), a serine protease with anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, exerts direct cytoprotective effects on endothelium via endothelial protein C receptor-dependent activation of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Here, we report that APC protects mouse cortical neurons from two divergent inducers of apoptosis,(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is more likely to induce severe complications and mortality than other enteroviruses. Methods for detection of IgM antibody against EV71 had been established for years, however, the performance of the methods in the very early diagnosis of EV71 infection had not been fully evaluated, which is especially meaningful because of(More)