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Activated protein C (APC) is a systemic anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory factor. It reduces organ damage in animal models of sepsis, ischemic injury and stroke and substantially reduces mortality in patients with severe sepsis. It was not known whether APC acts as a direct cell survival factor or whether its neuroprotective effect is secondary to its(More)
Activated protein C (APC), a serine protease with anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activities, exerts direct cytoprotective effects on endothelium via endothelial protein C receptor-dependent activation of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Here, we report that APC protects mouse cortical neurons from two divergent inducers of apoptosis,(More)
Brain hemorrhage is a serious complication of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy for ischemic stroke. Here we report that activated protein C (APC), a plasma serine protease with systemic anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities, and direct vasculoprotective and neuroprotective activities, blocks tPA-mediated brain hemorrhage(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection is more likely to induce severe complications and mortality than other enteroviruses. Methods for detection of IgM antibody against EV71 had been established for years, however, the performance of the methods in the very early diagnosis of EV71 infection had not been fully evaluated, which is especially meaningful because of(More)
The Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alpha-herpesvirus that is the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles. Although an attenuated VZV vaccine (v-Oka) has been widely used in children in the United States, chicken pox outbreaks are still seen, and the shingles vaccine only reduces the risk of shingles by 50%. Therefore, VZV still(More)
BACKGROUND EV71 is one of major etiologic causes of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and leads to severe neurological complications in young children and infants. Recently inactivated EV71 vaccines have been developed by five manufactures and clinically show good safety and immunogenicity. However, the cross-neutralizing activity of these vaccines remains(More)
AIM To investigate the expression of recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) in transgenic cherry tomatillo in order to explore the feasibility of producing HBV oral vaccine with cherry tomatillo by animal immune tests. METHODS The recombinant plant expression vector containing HBsAg gene was constructed. Mediated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, HBsAg gene was(More)
OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical observations, animal model experimentation, and in vitro studies that advance knowledge of the protein C system, including activated protein C (APC), in the setting of ischemic stroke. DATA SOURCE Narrative review of selected published primary basic and clinical literature from MEDLINE for 2000-2003. DATA SYNTHESIS Low(More)
Elements of a renin-angiotensin system expressed along the entire nephron, including angiotensinogen secreted by proximal tubule and renin expressed in connecting tubule, may participate in the regulation of sodium reabsorption at multiple sites of the nephron. The response of this tubular renin-angiotensin system to stepwise changes in dietary sodium was(More)
Although thrombolytic effects of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) are beneficial, its neurotoxicity is problematic. Here, we report that tPA potentiates apoptosis in ischemic human brain endothelium and in mouse cortical neurons treated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) by shifting the apoptotic pathways from caspase-9 to caspase-8, which directly(More)