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Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which unleash a patient's own T cells to kill tumors, are revolutionizing cancer treatment. To unravel the genomic determinants of response to this therapy, we used whole-exome sequencing of non-small cell lung cancers treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). In two independent cohorts,(More)
The Traf-linked tumor necrosis factor receptor family member CD27 is known as a T cell costimulatory molecule. We generated CD27-/- mice and found that CD27 makes essential contributions to mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function: CD27 supported antigen-specific expansion (but not effector cell maturation) of naïve T cells, independent of the cell(More)
Therapeutic efficacy of a tumor cell-based vaccine against experimental B16 melanoma requires the disruption of either of two immunoregulatory mechanisms that control autoreactive T cell responses: the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 pathway or the CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. Combination of CTLA-4 blockade and depletion of CD25(+)(More)
The immune system influences the fate of developing cancers by not only functioning as a tumour promoter that facilitates cellular transformation, promotes tumour growth and sculpts tumour cell immunogenicity, but also as an extrinsic tumour suppressor that either destroys developing tumours or restrains their expansion. Yet, clinically apparent cancers(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 75% of objective responses to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) therapy in patients with melanoma are durable, lasting for years, but delayed relapses have been noted long after initial objective tumor regression despite continuous therapy. Mechanisms of immune escape in this context are unknown. METHODS We analyzed biopsy samples(More)
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their subsequent progenitors produce blood cells, but the precise nature and kinetics of this production is a contentious issue. In one model, lymphoid and myeloid production branch after the lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP), with both branches subsequently producing dendritic cells. However, this model is(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules present antigen by transporting peptides from intracellularly degraded proteins to the cell surface for scrutiny by cytotoxic T cells. Recent work suggests that peptide binding may be required for efficient assembly and intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules, but it is not clear whether(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules associate with peptides that are delivered from the cytosol to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Liver microsomes of SHR and Lewis rats, which express different alleles of TAP (cim(b) and cim(a), respectively), accumulate different sets(More)
Activated CD8+ T cells detect virally infected cells and tumor cells by recognition of major histocompatibility complex class I-bound peptides derived from degraded, endogenously produced proteins. In contrast, CD8+ T cell activation often occurs through interaction with specialized antigen-presenting cells displaying peptides acquired from an exogenous(More)