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Mathematical models of the action potential in the periphery and center of the rabbit sinoatrial (SA) node have been developed on the basis of published experimental data. Simulated action potentials are consistent with those recorded experimentally: the model-generated peripheral action potential has a more negative takeoff potential, faster upstroke, more(More)
The basic principles of using sonographic techniques for imaging the elastic properties of tissues are described, with particular emphasis on elastography. After some preliminaries that describe some basic tissue stiffness measurements and some contrast transfer limitations of strain images are presented, four types of elastograms are described, which(More)
The range of strains that can be imaged by any practical elastographic imaging system is inherently limited, and a performance measure is valuable to evaluate these systems from the signal and noise properties of their output images. Such a measure was previously formulated for systems employing cross-correlation based time-delay estimators through the(More)
The Cramér-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB) are derived for the displacement and strain estimation in directions orthogonal to the ultrasonic beam axis, using a previously-described recorrelation method of axial, lateral and elevational motion estimation. We also compare it to the lateral tracking method that involves the sole use of the axial signal in the(More)
A theoretical formulation characterizing the noise performance of strain estimation using envelope signals is presented for the cross-correlation based strain estimator in elastography, using a modified strain filter approach. The strain filter describes the relationship among the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe), sensitivity, contrast-to-noise(More)
In elastography, window size has been typically used synonymously with resolution. Strain is estimated by computing the gradient of the displacement estimates, which have a direct dependence on the window size. However, the resolution is also dependent on the separation between these windows. The intricate relationship between the window size, window shift,(More)
Noise artifacts due to signal decorrelation and reverberation are a considerable problem in ultrasound strain imaging. For block-matching methods, information from neighboring matching blocks has been utilized to regularize the estimated displacements. We apply a recursive Bayesian regularization algorithm developed by Hayton et al. [Artif. Intell., vol.(More)
This paper presents the tradeoffs in elastographic imaging. Elastography is viewed as a new imaging modality and presented in terms of three fundamental concepts that constitute the basis for the elastographic imaging process. These are the tissue elastic deformation process, the statistical analysis of strain estimation and the image characterization. The(More)
—Elastography can produce quality strain images in vitro and in vivo. Standard elastography uses a coherent cross-correlation technique to estimate tissue displacement and tissue strain using a subsequent gradient operator. Although coherent estimation methods generally have the advantage of being highly accurate and precise, even relatively small undesired(More)