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PURPOSE The recently developed 2-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction lacks sufficient anatomic background. The purpose of this anatomic study was to describe functional anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) portions of the natural ACL and to provide a reproducible description of the graft placement. Our hypothesis was that the core(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to evaluate the morphology of the mid-substance and fan-like extension fibres of ACL during knee motion with reference to the femoral attachment. METHODS This study used six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees and 22 embalmed cadaveric knees to macroscopically evaluate morphological changes in the ACL attachment during knee(More)
PURPOSE A randomized clinical study was conducted to compare the outcome between double-bundle (DB) and single-bundle (SB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions with 4-strand semitendinosus tendon (ST). METHODS We divided 68 patients with unilateral ACL injury into 2 groups according to their birth date, and they were followed up in person for(More)
BACKGROUND Detailed anatomical information of the infraspinatus is important in order to discuss muscle function. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology, histology and innervation of the infraspinatus muscle, in order to construct an anatomical basis for diagnoses and operative procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used 51 shoulders(More)
BACKGROUND Double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has several potential advantages over single-bundle reconstruction with hamstring tendons. However, there are still controversies regarding tunnel placement in tibial and femoral attachments. HYPOTHESIS The macroscopically normal ACL consists of small bundles about 1 mm in diameter.(More)
BACKGROUND It is generally believed that the supraspinatus is the most commonly involved tendon in rotator cuff tears. Clinically, however, atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle is frequently observed in patients with even small to medium-size rotator cuff tears. This fact cannot be fully explained by our current understanding of the anatomical insertions of(More)
The morphogenesis of fungiform papillae occurs in a stereotyped pattern on the dorsal surface of the tongue in mice from embryonic day 12 (E12) to E17. The histological results and ultrastructural observations showed the development of specific structures in the epithelium into fungiform papillae. Prior to the morphological changes, the Bmp-4 and Shh(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the attachment of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) using cadaver specimens and establish an anatomic basis for optimal MPFL reconstruction to achieve better patella stability. METHODS Sixteen knees of eight cadavers were used in this study. The relationship of the MPFL with quadriceps muscles was(More)
The aim of this study was to improve surgical techniques for arthroscopically-assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with minimal sensory disturbance in the infrapatellar and anterior lower leg regions. Thirteen patients with sensory disturbance were examined neurologically, and 51 lower limbs of 26 adult cadavers were examined(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of the study was to compare the outcome of revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction by the double-bundle (DB) technique using multi-strand semitendinosus tendon with that of primary reconstruction by use of the same technique. METHODS The study included 21 patients who underwent revision ACL reconstruction (mean(More)