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In this review, we focussed on gustatory transduction mechanisms in frog taste cells on the basis of our research data. The frog taste cells were stimulated with four basic taste stimuli and pure water, and the receptor potentials and currents were recorded with microelectrode and patch pipette techniques. The taste cell membrane is divided into the apical(More)
The ionic mechanism underlying the receptor potential in frog taste cells induced by sugar stimuli was studied with conventional microelectrodes by replacing the superficial and interstitial fluids of the tongue with modified solutions. The taste cell generated a depolarizing receptor potential accompanying a remarkable reduction of input resistance in(More)
Prion protein (PrP) is a glycoprotein constitutively expressed on the neuronal cell surface. A protease-resistant isoform of prion protein is implicated in the pathogenesis of a series of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. We have developed a line of mice homozygous for a disrupted PrP gene in which the whole PrP-coding sequence is replaced by a(More)
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) may represent prodromal synucleinopathies. We report markedly reduced cardiac (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake, consistent with the loss of sympathetic terminals, in idiopathic RBD. We also demonstrate that this reduction is of the same magnitude as that found in patients with Parkinson disease. The results(More)
The ionic mechanism of the conductance activated by acetic acid was analyzed in isolated bullfrog taste cells under whole-cell voltage-clamp. Bath-application of acetic acid (pH 3.9-4.7) induced an inward current in about 80% of the taste cells. The current occurred in external 80 mmol l-1 Ba2+ and internal 100 mmol l-1 Cs+, which completely blocked the(More)
Using single channel recordings of the patch clamp method, we found first that cation channels were present in the bullfrog taste cell membranes. These channels were widely distributed over the taste cell membrane. The conductance examined with inside-out patches was 30.7 +/- 5.7 pS (mean +/- S.D., n = 13). The permeability ratio of the cation channel to(More)
1. The ionic mechanism underlying the receptor potential in frog taste cells induced by acid stimuli was studied with single microelectrodes by replacing superficial and interstitial fluids of the tongue with modified saline solutions. 2. The removal of Na+, Ca2+ and Cl- from the normal interstitial fluid did not affect the receptor potential induced by(More)
The ionic mechanism of generation of the receptor potential in a frog taste cell elicited by quinine-HCl (Q-HCl) was studied with an intracellular recording technique by replacing the superficial and interstitial fluids of the tongue with various saline solutions. The taste cells whose receptor membranes were adapted to normal saline and deionized water(More)
When the glossopharyngeal (GP) nerve of the frog was stimulated electrically, electropositive slow potentials were recorded from the tongue surface and depolarizing slow potentials from taste cells in the fungiform papillae. The amplitude of the slow potentials was stimulus strength- and the frequency-dependent. Generation of the slow potentials was not(More)
OBJECTIVE Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder. METHODS Cases were(More)