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A Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model was developed to describe the aspects of pharmacokinetic interactions between five HIV protease inhibitors (ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, indinavir) in rats. To increase usefulness of this BP-PK model, liver, intestinal tissue and other organ were assumed as compartments in this model.(More)
To develop beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists with higher selectivity, it is essential to evaluate the cardiac side effects which are the most serious side effects of this class of drugs. We studied receptor occupancy of beta1-ARs in rats as a possible cause for the side effect of beta2-AR agonists, namely myocardial fibrosis. Myocardial fibrosis in(More)
The drug interactions between a new human immune deficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, amprenavir, and four other protease inhibitors which are presently used have been characterized by in-vitro metabolic studies using rat liver microsomal fractions and in-vivo oral administration studies. The metabolic clearance rates (Vmax/Km) of amprenavir,(More)
Throughout therapeutic drug monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors in HIV-infected patients, it was found that plasma concentrations of saquinavir (SQV) were reduced in patients who had a habit of alcohol intake during double protease therapy with SQV and ritonavir (RTV). This study confirmed the pharmacokinetic profiles of SQV(More)
Expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms was compared in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar (WI) rats, which are commonly used strains in preclinical studies. Basal CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A2 mRNA levels were higher in WI rats than in SD rats (by 8-, 3- and 2-fold, respectively). Treatment with phenobarbital, a potent CYP inducer, increased the(More)
An in vitro system for liver organogenesis from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells has been recently established. This system is expected to be applied to the development of a new drug metabolism assay system that uses ES cells as a substitute for animal experiments. The objective of this study was to elucidate the drug metabolism profiles of the murine ES(More)
To elucidate the aspects of pharmacokinetic interactions among HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), we investigated the effects of indinavir (IDV) on the hepatic and intestinal first-pass metabolism of other HIV PIs, amprenavir (APV), saquinavir (SQV) and nelfinavir (NFV), in rats. After oral co-administration with IDV, the area under the concentration versus(More)
In this paper a fast processing architecture for the transform and quantization of the H.264/AVC, named DQ engine, is proposed. Compare with the traditional architecture, proposed DQ engine architecture could achieve 2 times fast processing of transform and quantization together with the inverse transform and inverse quantization when the rate-distortion(More)
The effects of selective beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on proinflammatory cytokines and the expression of stress-inducible proteins have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of a higher dose (60 mg/kg intravenously) of salbutamol, a selective beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, on the induction of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis(More)