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G-protein-coupled receptors are the largest class of cell-surface receptors, and these membrane proteins exist in equilibrium between inactive and active states. Conformational changes induced by extracellular ligands binding to G-protein-coupled receptors result in a cellular response through the activation of G proteins. The A(2A) adenosine receptor(More)
Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) is an iron-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to generate a major greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). Here, we report the crystal structure of NOR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 2.7 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals details of the catalytic binuclear center. The non-heme iron (Fe(B))(More)
Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the cleavage of the pyrrol ring of L-Trp and incorporates both atoms of a molecule of oxygen (O2). Here we report on the x-ray crystal structure of human IDO, complexed with the ligand inhibitor 4-phenylimidazole and cyanide. The overall structure of IDO shows two alpha-helical domains with the heme between(More)
The structure of quinol-dependent nitric oxide reductase (qNOR) from G. stearothermophilus, which catalyzes the reduction of NO to produce the major ozone-depleting gas N(2)O, has been characterized at 2.5 Å resolution. The overall fold of qNOR is similar to that of cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR), and some structural features that are characteristic of(More)
Adiponectin stimulation of its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, increases the activities of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), respectively, thereby contributing to healthy longevity as key anti-diabetic molecules. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were predicted to contain seven transmembrane helices with the(More)
The altered activity of the fructose transporter GLUT5, an isoform of the facilitated-diffusion glucose transporter family, has been linked to disorders such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. GLUT5 is also overexpressed in certain tumour cells, and inhibitors are potential drugs for these conditions. Here we describe the crystal structures of GLUT5 from(More)
Membrane proteins act as gateways to cells, and they are responsible for much of the communication between cells and their environments. Crystallography of membrane proteins is often limited by the difficulty of crystallization in detergent micelles. Co-crystallization with antibody fragments has been reported as a method to facilitate the crystallization(More)
When the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex (LHC-II) from pea thylakoid membranes is co-crystallized with native lipids, an octahedral crystal that exhibits no birefringence is obtained. Cryogenic electron micrographs of a crystal edge showed the crystal to be made up of hollow spherical assemblies with a diameter of 250 A. X-ray diffraction(More)
Nitric oxide reductases (NORs) are membrane proteins that catalyze the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N(2)O), which is a critical step of the nitrate respiration process in denitrifying bacteria. Using the recently determined first crystal structure of the cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR) [Hino T, Matsumoto Y, Nagano S, Sugimoto H,(More)
Recently, it has become apparent that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play many important roles in biological systems. For example, relationships between many diseases, such as cancer, cardiac infarction and arteriosclerosis, and ROS have been found. It is also well known that anti-oxidative agents scavenge ROS in biological systems, which in turn prevents(More)