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Photosynthetic organisms adopt two different strategies for the reduction of the C17 = C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to form chlorophyllide a, the direct precursor of chlorophyll a (refs 1-4). The first involves the activity of the light-dependent Pchlide oxidoreductase, and the second involves the light-independent (dark-operative)(More)
In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In(More)
BACKGROUND S100B, a small acidic calcium-binding protein, is a member of the S100 protein family and is a multifunctional protein capable of binding several target molecules, such as cytoskeletal proteins and protein kinases, in a calcium-dependent manner. S100B is a homodimer of S100 beta subunits (beta beta) with a total of four calcium-binding motifs(More)
Cyanobacteriochromes are cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors that share a bilin-binding GAF domain with photoreceptors of the phytochrome family. Cyanobacteriochromes are divided into many subclasses with distinct spectral properties. Among them, putative phototaxis regulators PixJs of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus(More)
In the anaerobic respiratory chain of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, complex II couples the reduction of fumarate to the oxidation of rhodoquinol, a reverse reaction catalyzed by mammalian complex II. In this study, the first structure of anaerobic complex II of mitochondria was determined. The structure, composed of four subunits and five co-factors,(More)
The alternative oxidase is a membrane-bound ubiquinol oxidase found in the majority of plants as well as many fungi and protists, including pathogenic organisms such as Trypanosoma brucei. It catalyzes a cyanide- and antimycin-A-resistant oxidation of ubiquinol and the reduction of oxygen to water, short-circuiting the mitochondrial electron-transport chain(More)
Ferredoxin-NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) catalyzes the reduction of NAD(P)(+) to NAD(P)H with the reduced ferredoxin (Fd) during the final step of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. FNR from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is functionally analogous to plant-type FNR but shares a structural homology to NADPH-dependent thioredoxin(More)
In the present paper we have investigated the effect of mutagenesis of a number of highly conserved residues (R159, D163, L177 and L267) which we have recently shown to line the hydrophobic inhibitor/substrate cavity in the alternative oxidases (AOXs). Measurements of respiratory activity in rSgAOX expressed in Escherichia coli FN102 membranes indicate that(More)
The complete glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Drosophila virilis isolated by screening with alpha GPDHM cDNA of the adult fly was sequenced. The gene contains eight exons spread over a total of approximate 8 kb DNA. Its exon/intron organization is identical to that of D. melanogaster. A single transcription initiation site was determined by primer(More)
Archaeal splicing endonucleases (EndAs) are currently classified into three groups. Two groups require a single subunit protein to form a homodimer or homotetramer. The third group requires two nonidentical protein components for the activity. To elucidate the molecular architecture of the two-subunit EndA system, we studied a crenarchaeal splicing(More)