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Photosynthetic organisms adopt two different strategies for the reduction of the C17 = C18 double bond of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to form chlorophyllide a, the direct precursor of chlorophyll a (refs 1-4). The first involves the activity of the light-dependent Pchlide oxidoreductase, and the second involves the light-independent (dark-operative)(More)
In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In(More)
BACKGROUND S100B, a small acidic calcium-binding protein, is a member of the S100 protein family and is a multifunctional protein capable of binding several target molecules, such as cytoskeletal proteins and protein kinases, in a calcium-dependent manner. S100B is a homodimer of S100 beta subunits (beta beta) with a total of four calcium-binding motifs(More)
The complete glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Drosophila virilis isolated by screening with alpha GPDHM cDNA of the adult fly was sequenced. The gene contains eight exons spread over a total of approximate 8 kb DNA. Its exon/intron organization is identical to that of D. melanogaster. A single transcription initiation site was determined by primer(More)
The alternative oxidase is a membrane-bound ubiquinol oxidase found in the majority of plants as well as many fungi and protists, including pathogenic organisms such as Trypanosoma brucei. It catalyzes a cyanide- and antimycin-A-resistant oxidation of ubiquinol and the reduction of oxygen to water, short-circuiting the mitochondrial electron-transport chain(More)
Cyanobacteriochromes are cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors that share a bilin-binding GAF domain with photoreceptors of the phytochrome family. Cyanobacteriochromes are divided into many subclasses with distinct spectral properties. Among them, putative phototaxis regulators PixJs of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus(More)
Ferredoxin-NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase (FNR) catalyzes the reduction of NAD(P)(+) to NAD(P)H with the reduced ferredoxin (Fd) during the final step of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. FNR from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is functionally analogous to plant-type FNR but shares a structural homology to NADPH-dependent thioredoxin(More)
Archaeal splicing endonucleases (EndAs) are currently classified into three groups. Two groups require a single subunit protein to form a homodimer or homotetramer. The third group requires two nonidentical protein components for the activity. To elucidate the molecular architecture of the two-subunit EndA system, we studied a crenarchaeal splicing(More)
Ferredoxin-NAD(P)(+) reductase (FNR) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of NAD(P)(+) to generate NAD(P)H during the final step of the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. FNR from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a homodimeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 90 kDa; it shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity(More)
Recent studies on the respiratory chain of Ascaris suum showed that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult A. suum. The system is the major pathway of energy metabolism for adaptation to a hypoxic environment not only in parasitic(More)