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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
During carcinogenesis of pancreatic islets in transgenic mice, an angiogenic switch activates the quiescent vasculature. Paradoxically, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are expressed constitutively. Nevertheless, a synthetic inhibitor (SU5416) of VEGF signalling impairs angiogenic switching and tumour growth. Two(More)
The mechanism involved in the clinically relevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) between cerivastatin (CER) and cyclosporin A (CsA) has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we examined the possible roles of transporter-mediated hepatic uptake in this DDI. The uptake of [(14)C]CER into human hepatocytes prepared from three different donors was(More)
Endocytic proteins such as epsin, AP180, and Hip1R (Sla2p) share a conserved modular region termed the epsin NH2-terminal homology (ENTH) domain, which plays a crucial role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis through an unknown target. Here, we demonstrate a strong affinity of the ENTH domain for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. With(More)
Cation-chloride cotransporters have been considered to play pivotal roles in controlling intracellular and extracellular ionic environments of neurons and hence controlling neuronal function. We investigated the total distributions of K-Cl cotransporter 1 (KCC1), KCC2 (KCC2), and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) messenger RNAs in the adult rat nervous(More)
Plant B-type cyclin genes are expressed specifically in late G2- and M-phases during the cell cycle. Their promoters contain a common cis-acting element, called the MSA (M-specific activator) element, that is necessary and sufficient for periodic promoter activation. This motif also is present in the tobacco kinesin-like protein gene NACK1, which is(More)
The uptake properties of taurocholate (TC) and estradiol 17beta-D-glucuronide (E(2)17betaG) were examined in freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes to discover if active transport is retained in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Firstly, the uptake of TC and E(2)17betaG was measured before and after cryopreservation. The uptake of TC was found(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study is to examine the selectivity of various inhibitors towards the rat organic anion transporting polypeptides 1 (Oatp1: gene symbol Slc21a1) and 2 (Oatp2: Slc21a5). METHODS The inhibitory effects of 20 compounds on the Oatpl-mediated transport of estradiol 17beta-D-glucuronide and on the Oatp2-mediated transport of(More)
Visceral smooth muscle cells (VSMC) play an essential role, through changes in their contraction-relaxation cycle, in the maintenance of homeostasis in biological systems. The features of these cells differ markedly by tissue and by species; moreover, there are often regional differences within a given tissue. The biophysical features used to investigate(More)
Two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea, strains C231T and C42, were isolated from a soda lake in China. Cells of the two strains were rod-shaped and gram-negative and colonies were bright red. They required at least 2.5 M NaCl for growth, with an optimum at 3.5 M NaCl, and grew over a pH range from 8.0 to 10.5, with an optimum at pH 8.5. Hypotonic treatment(More)