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During carcinogenesis of pancreatic islets in transgenic mice, an angiogenic switch activates the quiescent vasculature. Paradoxically, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are expressed constitutively. Nevertheless, a synthetic inhibitor (SU5416) of VEGF signalling impairs angiogenic switching and tumour growth. Two(More)
The mechanism involved in the clinically relevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) between cerivastatin (CER) and cyclosporin A (CsA) has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we examined the possible roles of transporter-mediated hepatic uptake in this DDI. The uptake of [(14)C]CER into human hepatocytes prepared from three different donors was(More)
Endocytic proteins such as epsin, AP180, and Hip1R (Sla2p) share a conserved modular region termed the epsin NH2-terminal homology (ENTH) domain, which plays a crucial role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis through an unknown target. Here, we demonstrate a strong affinity of the ENTH domain for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. With(More)
Purpose. The purpose of the present study is to examine the selectivity of various inhibitors towards the rat organic anion transporting polypeptides 1 (Oatp1: gene symbol Slc21a1) and 2 (Oatp2: Slc21a5). Methods. The inhibitory effects of 20 compounds on the Oatp1-mediated transport of estradiol 17β-D-glucuronide and on the Oatp2-mediated transport of(More)
Cation-chloride cotransporters have been considered to play pivotal roles in controlling intracellular and extracellular ionic environments of neurons and hence controlling neuronal function. We investigated the total distributions of K-Cl cotransporter 1 (KCC1), KCC2 (KCC2), and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) messenger RNAs in the adult rat nervous(More)
Clinical studies have revealed that plasma concentrations of midazolam after oral administration are greatly increased by coadministration of erythromycin and clarithromycin, whereas azithromycin has little effect on midazolam concentrations. Several macrolide antibiotics are known to be mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A, a cytochrome P450 isoform(More)
Gene orders have been shown to be generally unstable by comprehensive analyses in several complete genomes. In this study, we examined instability of genome structures within operons, where functionally related genes are clustered. We compared gene orders of known operons obtained from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis with corresponding those of(More)
Microglia are the main human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir in the central nervous system and most likely play a major role in the development of HIV dementia (HIVD). To characterize human adult microglial chemokine receptors, we analyzed the expression and calcium signaling of CCR5, CCR3, and CXCR4 and their roles in HIV entry. Microglia expressed(More)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected in 20 (29%) out of 69 lung carcinomas (LCs) in Chile, by PCR and Southern blot, and was more frequently detected in squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) than in adenocarcinomas (46 vs 9%, P=0.001). HPV-16, positive in 11 cases, was the most frequently detected HPV genotype determined by DNA sequencing. HPV-16 E2/E6(More)
Bloodfed female Aedes aegypti were exposed to a surface treated with pyriproxyfen at 1.0 g m2 for 30 min and then allowed to lay eggs in cups of water containing 4th-instar larvae. Adult emergence from the immatures was highly inhibited, and transmission of pyriproxyfen from the females to the water was revealed. The transfer of the chemical to the water(More)