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When new learning occurs against the background of established prior knowledge, relevant new information can be assimilated into a schema and thereby expand the knowledge base. An animal model of this important component of memory consolidation reveals that systems memory consolidation can be very fast. In experiments with rats, we found that the(More)
Elucidation of molecular mechanisms that regulate synapse formation is required for the understanding of neural wiring, higher brain functions, and mental disorders. Despite the wealth of in vitro information, fundamental questions about how glutamatergic synapses are formed in the mammalian brain remain unanswered. Glutamate receptor (GluR) delta2 is(More)
Precise topological matching of presynaptic and postsynaptic specializations is essential for efficient synaptic transmission. Furthermore, synaptic connections are subjected to rearrangements throughout life. Here we examined the role of glutamate receptor (GluR) delta2 in the adult brain by inducible and cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC)-specific gene(More)
The synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis asserts that activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is induced at appropriate synapses during memory formation and is both necessary and sufficient for the encoding and trace storage of the type of memory mediated by the brain area in which it is observed. Criteria for establishing the necessity and sufficiency(More)
In the cerebellum, Delphilin is expressed selectively in Purkinje cells (PCs) and is localized exclusively at parallel fiber (PF) synapses, where it interacts with glutamate receptor (GluR) delta2 that is essential for long-term depression (LTD), motor learning and cerebellar wiring. Delphilin ablation exerted little effect on the synaptic localization of(More)
Glutamate receptor GluRδ2 is exclusively expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) from early development and plays key roles in parallel fiber (PF) synapse formation, elimination of surplus climbing fibers (CFs), long-term depression, motor coordination, and motor learning. To address its role in adulthood, we previously developed a mouse model of drug-induced(More)
The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine-hydroxylase-expressing (TH+) neurons in the(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is widely expressed in the brain, and plays key roles in various cellular processes in response to both extracellular and intracellular stimuli. Here, we explored the role of FAK in cerebellar development. In the mouse cerebellum, FAK was found to be distributed as tiny cytoplasmic(More)
Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (dibutyryl cyclic AMP) induced eumelanin synthesis in hair bulb melanocytes of recessive yellow (e/e) mice in vitro, whereas alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) did not. In contrast, the melanocytes of lethal yellow (Ay/a) mice produced eumelanin in response to both dibutyryl cyclic AMP and alpha-MSH.(More)