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Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) exerts a wide variety of biological functions by regulating reorganization of actin and tubulin cytoskeletal proteins through signaling pathways including sequential phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) and CRMP2 by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). To delineate how GSK3β(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine quantitatively whether two calcium-binding proteins, calbindin D28k and calretinin, are localized in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons of the supraoptic nucleus of the male rat. We used a triple-labeling immunofluorescence method with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Of the oxytocin-labeled cells, 70% were(More)
We used triple-labeling immunohistochemistry in rat midbrain sections to identify dopaminergic neurons that contain either one or both of the calcium-binding proteins, calretinin (CR) and calbindin-D28k (CB). Midbrain dopaminergic neurons were immunohistochemically labeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), CR, and CB. In the substantia nigra pars compacta(More)
Axonal transport plays a crucial role in neuronal morphogenesis, survival, and function. Despite its importance, however, the molecular mechanisms of axonal transport remain mostly unknown because a simple and quantitative assay system for axonal transport has been lacking. In order to better characterize the molecular mechanisms involved in axonal(More)
We examined whether dopamine-degrading activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) is present in dopaminergic neurons of the rat brain. We employed a double-labeling procedure combining immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and enzyme histochemistry for MAO activity using dopamine as a substrate. The following dopaminergic cell groups were examined:(More)
Satoh et al. (1978a) demonstrated that Barrington's nucleus in the rat corresponds to the nucleus laterodorsalis tegmenti (TLD), immediately ventromedial to the rostral pole of the locus coeruleus (LC). To confirm this finding and to identify the course of the tracts and their terminals, we injected small amounts of HRP into the TLD, LC and the lumbar and(More)
Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is an early cellular response to various extracellular signals. Sema3A, a repulsive axon guidance molecule, induces the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in the growth cones. Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) mediates the intracellular Sema3A signalling through its Ser522 phosphorylation. Here we show(More)
Combination of glyoxylic acid perfusion and postfixation in permanganate was used in an electron microscopic study of the locus coeruleus (LC) of the rat to give good preservation of fine structure and a reproducible demonstration of noradrenaline (NA) storage granules. Medium-sized LC cells (18 x 30 microns) contained a moderate number of small granular(More)
The dendritic targeting of neurotransmitter receptors is vital for dendritic development and function. However, how such localization is established remains unclear. Here we show that semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) signalling at the axonal growth cone is propagated towards the cell body by retrograde axonal transport and drives AMPA receptor GluA2 to the distal(More)
The aim of the present study is to examine whether noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) of the rat contain monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Sections were processed initially for MAO enzyme histochemistry using tyramine as a substrate, followed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In the LC, virtually all(More)