Tomomi Tsubouchi

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Tight control of the number and distribution of crossovers is of great importance for meiosis. Crossovers establish chiasmata, which are physical connections between homologous chromosomes that provide the tension necessary to align chromosomes on the meiotic spindle. Understanding the mechanisms underlying crossover control has been hampered by the(More)
We describe a process in meiotic cells of budding yeast in which chromosomes become joined together in pairs at their centromeres independent of chromosomal homology. These centromeric interactions depend on the synaptonemal complex component Zip1. During meiosis in wild-type diploids, centromere couples are initially nonhomologous and then undergo(More)
We have characterized Zip4 (a.k.a. Spo22), a meiosis-specific protein essential for chromosome synapsis in budding yeast. In the absence of Zip4, the synaptonemal complex protein Zip1 fails to polymerize along chromosomes. Zip2 and Zip3 are previously characterized components of the synapsis initiation complex. Zip4 forms a functional unit with Zip2 that is(More)
Previous studies of synaptonemal complex assembly in budding yeast have suggested that chromosome synapsis initiates at the sites of crossing over. The data presented here, however, indicate that centromeric regions are preferred sites for synapsis initiation. At early times during meiosis in wild type, the Zip1 protein (a major building block of the(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent, self-renewing, and have the ability to reprogram differentiated cell types to pluripotency upon cellular fusion. Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins are important for restraining the inappropriate expression of lineage-specifying factors in ESCs. To investigate whether PcG proteins are required for establishing, rather(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can instruct the conversion of differentiated cells toward pluripotency following cell-to-cell fusion by a mechanism that is rapid but poorly understood. Here, we used centrifugal elutriation to enrich for mouse ESCs at sequential stages of the cell cycle and showed that ESCs in S/G2 phases have an enhanced capacity to dominantly(More)
Meiotic recombination plays an essential role in the proper segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I in many sexually reproducing organisms. Meiotic recombination is initiated by the scheduled formation of genome-wide DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The timing of DSB formation is strictly controlled because unscheduled DSB formation is detrimental to genome(More)
Reprogramming differentiated cells towards pluripotency can be achieved by different experimental strategies including the forced expression of specific 'inducers' and nuclear transfer. While these offer unparalleled opportunities to generate stem cells and advance disease modelling, the relatively low levels of successful reprogramming achieved (1-2%)(More)
During meiotic prophase I, proteinaceous structures called synaptonemal complexes (SCs) connect homologous chromosomes along their lengths via polymeric arrays of transverse filaments (TFs). Thus, control of TF polymerization is central to SC formation. Using budding yeast, we show that efficiency of TF polymerization closely correlates with the extent of(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can self renew and retain the potential to differentiate into each of the cell types within the body. During experimental reprogramming, many of the features of ESCs can be acquired by differentiated target cells. One of these is the unusual cell division cycle that characterizes ESCs in which the Gap (G) phases are short and DNA(More)