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Imidapril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is widely used in treating hypertension, although the responses vary among individuals. We investigated whether a single nucleotide polymorphism at position -816 of the carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) gene, which activates imidapril in the liver, is involved in the responsiveness to imidapril(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this article is to qualitatively describe the characteristics of spontaneous reporting systems, signal detection methods, and observational databases in Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. METHODS National statistics and published literature were reviewed to determine the annual number of spontaneous reports and the main source (reporters) for(More)
Identifying intracellular molecular interactions is the first step toward understanding complex dynamics and mechanisms of the cell. We have created a comprehensive map of molecular interactions in a macrophage based on published literature. The map was created to analyze the experimental data sets produced by the Alliance for Cellular Signaling (AfCS).(More)
Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation plays an important role in reduction of blood pressure and is mediated through release of nitric oxide (NO), which is generated by constitutively expressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3). Exercise also augments NO release and has been recommended for primary prevention and improvement of hypertension, but(More)
BACKGROUND Infliximab and elemental diet (ED) have been shown to be effective in the management of Crohn's disease. However, few experiences have been reported regarding their combination therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of infliximab in Japanese patients, the first such study in Asia, as well as the effect of(More)
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously demonstrated that the transcription factor, MafB, increased in the AMs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke, and in those of human patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MafB in AMs using newly(More)
BACKGROUND The Gly80Ser polymorphism in phospholipase A2-IID (PLA2G2D, NCBI SNP reference: rs584367) is associated with a loss in body weight in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The T allele missense mutation results in the 80th amino acid of the PLA2G2D protein changing from a glycine (Gly; C allele) to a serine (Ser; T allele).(More)
Pulmonary innate immunity is impaired in cigarette smokers, because the abundant oxidants present in cigarette smoke (CS) cause injury to lung cells. Pulmonary surfactant is a unique material that is important roles in reducing surface tension in the lung and defending against invading pathogens. Oxidants reportedly cleave surfactant phospholipids,(More)
INTRODUCTION The prevalence of polymorphisms among the metabolising enzymes and pharmacodynamic receptors relevant for the thiazolidinediones differs by ethnic group, a factor that may modify risk of adverse drug events. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine if the risk of oedema or heart failure associated with the thiazolidinediones varies in(More)
PURPOSE To undertake a multi-country study to investigate the risk of acute hyperglycaemia with antipsychotic use. METHODS Using a distributed network model with a common minimal data set, we performed a prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA) to investigate the risk of acute hyperglycaemia associated with antipsychotic initiation. Incident insulin(More)