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Gene expression in Plasmodium parasites undergoes significant changes in each developmental stage, but the transcription factors (TFs) regulating these changes have not been identified. We report here a Plasmodium TF (AP2-O) that activates gene expression in ookinetes, the mosquito-invasive form, and has a DNA-binding domain structurally related to that of(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic and cellular transport pathway of methotrexate (MTX) on the clinical outcome of MTX monotherapy in Japanese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Fifty-five patients were treated with MTX monotherapy at a dose of 4-10 mg/week. The total concentration of(More)
The malarial sporozoite is the stage that infects the liver, and genes expressed in this stage are potential targets for vaccine development. Here, we demonstrate that specific gene expression in this stage is regulated by an AP2-related transcription factor, designated AP2-Sp (APETALA2 in sporozoites), that is expressed from the late oocyst to the salivary(More)
The liver stage is the first stage of the malaria parasite that replicates in the vertebrate host. However, little is known about the interplay between the parasite liver stage and its host cell, the hepatocyte. In this study, we identified an exported protein that has a critical role in parasite development in host hepatocytes. Expressed sequence tag(More)
Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes(More)
AbstractWe investigated mutations of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) gene and structural characteristics of I2S to clarify genotype/phenotype relationships in 18 Japanese patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II. The I2S gene was analyzed in five patients with a severe phenotype and in 13 patients with an attenuated phenotype. The tertiary structural(More)
Gametocytes are nonreplicative sexual forms that mediate malaria transmission to a mosquito vector. They are generated from asexual blood-stage parasites that proliferate in the circulation. However, little is known about how this transition is genetically regulated. Here, we report that an Apetala2 (AP2) family transcription factor, AP2-G2, regulates this(More)
MPS type II (Hunter disease) results from deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfate sulfatase. Two forms of the disease have been recognized, based on absence or presence of progressive intellectual deterioration. This study aimed to assess activities of daily life (ADL) in 27 Hunter disease-affected Japanese patients, using a modified version(More)
The introduction of transgenes into Plasmodium falciparum, a highly virulent human malaria parasite, has been conducted either by single crossover recombination or by using episomal plasmids. However, these techniques remain insufficient because of the low transfection efficiency and the low frequency of recombination. To improve the genetic manipulation of(More)
Liver-stage malaria parasites are a promising target for drugs and vaccines against malaria infection. However, little is currently known about gene regulation in this stage. In this study, we used the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei and showed that an AP2-family transcription factor, designated AP2-L, plays a critical role in the liver-stage(More)