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Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS(More)
Recently, we demonstrated that FAM20B is a kinase that phosphorylates the xylose (Xyl) residue in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region of proteoglycans. The phosphorylation of Xyl residues by FAM20B enhances the formation of the linkage region. Rapid dephosphorylation is probably induced just after synthesis of the linker and just before(More)
We recently cloned human chondroitin synthase (ChSy) exhibiting the glucuronyltransferase-II (GlcATII) and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-II (GalNAcTII) activities responsible for the biosynthesis of repeating disaccharide units of chondroitin sulfate, but chondroitin polymerization was not demonstrated in vitro using the recombinant ChSy. We report here(More)
We have demonstrated a defect in expression of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 (C4ST-1) in murine sog9 cells, which are poorly sensitive to infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Sog9 cells were previously isolated as CS-deficient cells from gro2C cells, which were partially resistant to HSV-1 infection and defective in the expression of(More)
2-O-phosphorylation of xylose has been detected in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region, GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Xylbeta1-O-Ser, of proteoglycans. Recent mutant analyses in zebrafish suggest that xylosyltransferase I and FAM20B, a protein of unknown function that shows weak similarity to a Golgi kinase encoded by four-jointed, operate in a(More)
Recently, we demonstrated that chondroitin polymerization is achieved by any two combinations of human chondroitin synthase-1 (ChSy-1), ChSy-2 (chondroitin sulfate synthase 3, CSS3), and chondroitin-polymerizing factor (ChPF). Although an additional ChSy family member, called chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase (CSGlcA-T), has been identified, its(More)
Sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, are synthesized on the so-called common GAG-protein linkage region (GlcUAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Xylbeta1-O-Ser) of core proteins, which is formed by the stepwise addition of monosaccharide residues by the respective specific glycosyltransferases.(More)
Bone formation in the vertebrate skeleton occurs via the processes of endochondral and membranous ossification. Bone matrices contain chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains that regulate endochondral ossification. However, the function of CS in membranous ossification is unclear. Here, using preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells we demonstrate that chondroitin sulfate-E(More)
We have revealed that in Caenorhabditis elegans, non-sulfated chondroitin is required for normal cell division and cytokinesis at an early developmental stage, whereas heparan sulfate is essential for embryonic morphogenesis in the later stages of development. To clarify the roles of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in early embryogenesis in mammals,(More)
Previously, we have demonstrated that co-expression of ChSy-1 (chondroitin synthase-1), with ChPF (chondroitin-polymerizing factor) resulted in a marked augmentation of glycosyltransferase activities and the expression of the chondroitin polymerase activity of ChSy-1. These results prompted us to evaluate the effects of co-expression of the recently cloned(More)