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Identification of Chondroitin Sulfate Glucuronyltransferase as Chondroitin Synthase-3 Involved in Chondroitin Polymerization
TLDR
The results suggest that chondroitin polymerization is achieved by multiple combinations of Ch Sy-1, ChSy-2, CSGlcA-T, and ChPF and that each combination may play a unique role in the biosynthesis of CS.
Involvement of chondroitin sulfate synthase-3 (chondroitin synthase-2) in chondroitin polymerization through its interaction with chondroitin synthase-1 or chondroitin-polymerizing factor.
TLDR
The results suggest that chondroitin polymerization is achieved by multiple combinations of ChSy-1, CSS3 and ChPF, and CSS3 is renamed CSS3 Ch Sy-2 (chondroit in synthase-2).
Correlation of C4ST-1 and ChGn-2 expression with chondroitin sulfate chain elongation in atherosclerosis.
TLDR
C4ST-1 and ChGn-2 may be involved in the elongation of CS chains in the arterial wall during the progression of atherosclerosis and modulating their expression and activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy for Atherosclerosis.
Identification of Phosphatase That Dephosphorylates Xylose in the Glycosaminoglycan-Protein Linkage Region of Proteoglycans*
TLDR
It is concluded that transient phosphorylation of the Xyl residue in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region controls the formation of glycosaminationoglycan chains of proteoglycans.
Molecular Cloning of a Chondroitin Polymerizing Factor That Cooperates with Chondroitin Synthase for Chondroitin Polymerization*
TLDR
It is reported here that the chondroitin polymerizing activity requires concomitant expression of a novel protein designated ChPF (ChPF) with mammalian ChSy, and results suggested that the ChPF acts as a specific activating factor for ChSy in chondDetroitin polymerization.
Expression of rib-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans Homolog of the Human Tumor Suppressor EXT Genes, Is Indispensable for Heparan Sulfate Synthesis and Embryonic Morphogenesis*
TLDR
RIB-1 in addition to RIB-2 is indispensable for the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate in Caenorhabditis elegans, and the two cooperate to synthesize heParan sulfates in vivo, and these findings show that heparin sulfate is essential for post-gastrulation morphogenic movement of embryonic cells and is indispensablefor ensuring the normal spatial organization of differentiated tissues and organs.
FAM20B is a kinase that phosphorylates xylose in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region.
TLDR
The results suggest that FAM20B regulates the number of glycosaminoglycan chains by phosphorylating the xylose residue in the glycosamination-protein linkage region of proteoglycans.
2-O-Phosphorylation of Xylose and 6-O-Sulfation of Galactose in the Protein Linkage Region of Glycosaminoglycans Influence the Glucuronyltransferase-I Activity Involved in the Linkage Region
TLDR
Evidence is presented that the Xyl and Gal residues in the linkage region can be modified by phosphorylation and sulfation, respectively, which indicates the possible involvement of these modifications in the processing and maturation of the growing linkage region oligosaccharide required for the assembly of GAG chains.
Nematode Chondroitin Polymerizing Factor Showing Cell-/Organ-specific Expression Is Indispensable for Chondroitin Synthesis and Embryonic Cell Division*
TLDR
Findings are consistent with the notion that chondroitin is involved in the organogenesis of the vulva and maturation of the gonad and also indicative of an involvement in distal tip cell migration and neural development.
Chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 regulates the chain length of chondroitin sulfate in co-operation with chondroitin N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-2.
TLDR
The results suggest that the chain length of CS is regulated by C4ST-1 and ChGn-2 and that the enzymatic activities of these proteins play a critical role in CS elongation.
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