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A major source of inorganic nitrogen for rice plants grown in paddy soil is ammonium ions. The ammonium ions are actively taken up by the roots via ammonium transporters and subsequently assimilated into the amide residue of glutamine (Gln) by the reaction of glutamine synthetase (GS) in the roots. The Gln is converted into glutamate (Glu), which is a(More)
In plants, glutamine synthetase (GS) is the enzyme that is mainly responsible for the assimilation of ammonium. Conversely, in microorganisms such as bacteria and Ascomycota, NADP(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and GS both have important roles in ammonium assimilation. Here, we report the changes in nitrogen assimilation, metabolism, growth, and(More)
The root system is a crucial determinant of plant growth potential because of its important functions, e.g. uptake of water and nutrients, structural support and interaction with symbiotic organisms. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of root development and functions is therefore necessary for improving plant productivity, particularly for crop plants,(More)
The excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer to maximize crop yields causes negative environmental effects such as pollution and ecological imbalance. To overcome this problem, researchers have attempted to improve the nitrogen assimilation capacity of crops. Maize Dof1 (ZmDof1) is a plant-specific transcription factor shown to promote nitrogen(More)
Enhancement of oxygen transport from shoot to root tip by the formation of aerenchyma and also a barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots is common in waterlogging-tolerant plants. Zea nicaraguensis (teosinte), a wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), grows in waterlogged soils. We investigated the formation of aerenchyma and ROL barrier induction(More)
In rice roots, transient and cell-type-specific accumulation of both mRNA and protein for NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) occurs after the supply of NH(4) (+) ions. In order to better understand the origin of 2-oxoglutarate for this reaction, we focused on mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase(More)
Laser microdissection (LM) combined with microarray analysis or next-generation sequencing of cDNA is a powerful tool for understanding molecular events in individual cell types of plants as well as animals. Obtaining high quality RNA is essential for this approach. For plant tissues, paraffin-embedded sections better preserve cell structure than do frozen(More)
Effective information services could be provided for users by investing meta-data in information sources and making software agents understand it. In this paper, we make better use of a collection (ontology) of meta-data in the semantic Web technology for the design of an e-learning system that enables to provide learners with a more effective education(More)
RNA silencing is an epigenetic inhibition of gene expression and is guided by small interfering RNAs. Sense transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS) occurs in a portion of a transgenic plant population. When a sense transgene encoding a tobacco endoplasmic reticulum omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (NtFAD3) was introduced into tobacco(More)
Root aerenchyma provides oxygen from plant shoots to roots. In upland crops, aerenchyma formation is induced mainly by oxygen or nutrient deficiency. Unlike upland crops, rice forms root aerenchyma constitutively and also inductively in response to oxygen deficiency. However, the effects of nitrogen deficiency on aerenchyma formation in rice remain unknown(More)