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Excitatory Amino Acids (EAAs) release has been considered to be neurotoxic in traumatic brain injury patients. Microdialysis samples of extracellular space (ECS) and high glutamate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) have been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between EAA(More)
Recent studies have suggested implications for α-synuclein cytotoxicity in the pathomechanism of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Given in vitro evidence that α-synuclein generates oxidative stress, it is proposed that lipid peroxidation may be accelerated in MSA. To address this issue, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of protein-bound(More)
We examined the brainstem of 10 patients with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD). In the midbrain we noted leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia (LGH) (n = 9) and intramural "micropolygyria" (n = 1) in the tectum, as well as tyrosine hydroxylase-positive ectopic neurons/fibers ventral to the cerebral peduncle (n = 3). In the pontomedullary(More)
Expression and localization of fukutin, a gene responsible for Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), was studied in the central nervous system by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In control cases, glial cells expressed fukutin and the expression continued from fetuses to adults. Double immunostaining revealed that some of these cells(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics were correlated to the changes in ventricular size during the first 3 months posttrauma in patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score < or = 8, 75 patients) to distinguish between atrophy and hydrocephalus as the two possible causes of posttraumatic ventriculomegaly. Using the bolus injection technique, the(More)
Several studies have documented the involvement of oxidative stress represented by lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test whether the highly reactive carbonyl crotonaldehyde (CRA), generated during lipid peroxidation, is involved in AD, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis in AD and age-matched control hippocampi(More)
OBJECT The pathogenesis of traumatic brain swelling remains unclear. The generally held view is that brain swelling is caused primarily by vascular engorgement and that edema plays a relatively minor role in the swelling process. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and edema in traumatic brain swelling. METHODS(More)
Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of programmed cell death and inflammation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To assess molecular pathological effects of the anti-inflammatory peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist pioglitazone in ALS, we verified changes in the population of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia in(More)
Several studies have suggested the involvement of neuroinflammation in the pathomechanism of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We recently demonstrated increased levels of protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) as a highly reactive lipid peroxidation product and cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) as a(More)
4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) is a toxic, reactive aldehydic intermediate formed by nonenzymatic peroxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this study was to determine the implication for HHE in the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by immunohistochemical and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques using a mouse(More)