Tomoko Nishiyama

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Sister chromatid cohesion is essential for chromosome segregation and is mediated by cohesin bound to DNA. Cohesin-DNA interactions can be reversed by the cohesion-associated protein Wapl, whereas a stably DNA-bound form of cohesin is thought to mediate cohesion. In vertebrates, Sororin is essential for cohesion and stable cohesin-DNA interactions, but how(More)
Sister chromatid cohesion depends on Sororin, a protein that stabilizes acetylated cohesin complexes on DNA by antagonizing the cohesin release factor Wings-apart like protein (Wapl). Cohesion is essential for chromosome biorientation but has to be dissolved to enable sister chromatid separation. To achieve this, the majority of cohesin is removed from(More)
During S phase, not only does DNA have to be replicated, but also newly synthesized DNA molecules have to be connected with each other. This sister chromatid cohesion is essential for the biorientation of chromosomes on the mitotic or meiotic spindle, and is thus an essential prerequisite for chromosome segregation. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin complexes(More)
Until fertilization, the meiotic cell cycle of vertebrate eggs is arrested at metaphase of meiosis II by a cytoplasmic activity termed cytostatic factor (CSF), which causes inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that targets mitotic cyclins-regulatory proteins of meiosis and mitosis-for degradation. Recent studies(More)
Mammalian genomes contain several billion base pairs of DNA that are packaged in chromatin fibres. At selected gene loci, cohesin complexes have been proposed to arrange these fibres into higher-order structures, but how important this function is for determining overall chromosome architecture and how the process is regulated are not well understood. Using(More)
At fertilization, an increase of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca2+) triggers various activation responses in animal eggs. In vertebrates, these responses include exit from metaphase arrest in meiosis II (MII exit) and cortical remodelling initiated by cortical granule exocytosis. Although the essential requirement of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II(More)
Myoblast fusion is a critical process for the terminal differentiation of skeletal muscle. To elucidate the intracellular mechanisms regulating myoblast fusion, we studied the roles of signaling through the small GTPase Rho and its effector, the Rho-associated kinase ROCK, in myoblast fusion of mouse C2C12 cells. We found that Rho activity, which was high(More)
Cohesin is a ring-shaped protein complex that plays a crucial role in sister chromatid cohesion and gene expression. The dynamic association of cohesin with chromatin is essential for these functions. However, the exact nature of cohesin dynamics, particularly cohesin translocation, remains unclear. We evaluated the dynamics of individual cohesin molecules(More)
Betacellulin (BTC) is one of the members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand family of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases. It is a differentiation factor as well as a potent mitogen. BTC promotes the differentiation of pancreatic acinar-derived AR42J cells into insulin-producing cells. It independently and preferentially binds to two type I tyrosine(More)
Sister chromatid cohesion is crucial to ensure chromosome bi-orientation and equal chromosome segregation. Cohesin removal via mitotic kinases and Wapl has to be prevented in pericentromeric regions in order to protect cohesion until metaphase, but the mechanisms of mitotic cohesion protection remain elusive in Drosophila Here, we show that dalmatian (Dmt),(More)