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Phenotypic classification of human CD8(+) T cells using three cell surface markers, CD27, CD28 and CD45RA, was recently suggested to be useful for identification of naive, memory and effector CD8(+) T cells. However, it still remains unclear whether such classification precisely reflects functional classification of CD8(+) T cells. To clarify this, we(More)
Previous studies of perforin expression and cytokine production in subsets of peripheral human CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells with different CD28/CD27 phenotypes showed that CD28(+)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) and CD27(+)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells have characteristics of memory T cells, whereas CD28(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) and CD27(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells have characteristics of both(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial components and trigger the signaling cascade that activates the innate and adaptive immunity. TLR adaptor molecules play a central role in this cascade; thus, we hypothesized that overexpression of TLR adaptor molecules could mimic infection without any microbial components. Dual-promoter plasmids that carry an(More)
PURPOSE To establish proper contact lens care as a common practice by discovering the quantity and condition of protein deposition on various types of soft contact lenses. METHODS The amounts of deposition of two proteins found in tear fluid, lysozyme and albumin, on various types of contact lenses were measured. Lenses deposited with albumin and lenses(More)
Low-intensity electrical current (or mild electrical stimulation; MES) influences signal transduction and activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Because insulin resistance is characterized by a marked reduction in insulin-stimulated PI3K-mediated activation of Akt, we asked whether MES could increase Akt phosphorylation and ameliorate(More)
Flagellin is a key component of the flagella of many pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Flagellin is an attractive vaccine candidate because it is readily produced and manipulated as a recombinant protein and has intrinsic adjuvant activity mediated through TLR5. Although DNA vaccines encoding native Pseudomonas B-type (FliC) or A-type (FlaA)(More)
For efficacious vaccine development against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), the immunogenicity of multivalent DNA vaccine was evaluated. Three different plasmids each targeting a fusion of outer membrane proteins (OprF/OprI), a protein regulating type III secretion system (PcrV), or an appendage (PilA) were prepared and mice were immunized with(More)
We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective activity of plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the influenza virus NP gene (pNP) alone or in combination with the herpes simplex virus type 1 protein 22 gene (pVP22). Optimal immune responses were observed in BALB/c mice immunized with the combination of pVP22 plus pNP, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent(More)
To explore the cellular effects of mild electrical stimulation (MES), we treated A549 cells with low-intensity direct current at 5 V applied for 10 min. MES did not induce cell cytotoxicity or the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, the expression of ubiquitinated proteins and heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 was increased but not that of other Hsps.(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify and characterize cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) epitopes for HIV-1 clade E using eight known HLA-A*1101-restricted HIV-1 clade B epitopes. METHODS Induction of clade E-specific CTL was examined by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from clade E-infected Thai individuals with the clade E-specific peptide corresponding to(More)