Tomoko Kuwabara

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It has become apparent that chromatin modification plays a critical role in the regulation of cell-type-specific gene expression. Here, we show that an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, valproic acid (VPA), induced neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal neural progenitors. In addition, VPA inhibited astrocyte and oligodendrocyte differentiation, even(More)
In adult hippocampus, new neurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells (NSCs), but the molecular mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis remain elusive. We found that Wnt signaling, together with the removal of Sox2, triggered the expression of NeuroD1 in mice. This transcriptional regulatory mechanism was dependent on a DNA element containing(More)
Discovering the molecular mechanisms that regulate neuron-specific gene expression remains a central challenge for CNS research. Here, we report that small, noncoding double-stranded (ds) RNAs play a critical role in mediating neuronal differentiation. The sequence defined by this dsRNA is NRSE/RE1, which is recognized by NRSF/REST, known primarily as a(More)
Brain lactate concentration is usually assumed to be stable except when pathologic conditions cause a mismatch between glycolysis and respiration. Using newly developed 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques that allow measurement of lactate in vivo, we detected lactate elevations of 0.3-0.9 mM in human visual cortex during physiologic photic stimulation. The(More)
Adult multipotent neural progenitor cells can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms that control their differentiation are not yet well understood. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) can promote the differentiation of cells already committed to an oligodendroglial(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) is arguably one of the most complex systems in the universe. To understand the CNS, scientists have investigated a variety of molecules, including proteins, lipids, and various small molecules. However, one large class of molecules, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), has been relatively unexplored. ncRNAs function directly as(More)
Multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) can be isolated from many regions of the adult central nervous system (CNS), yet neurogenesis is restricted to the hippocampus and subventricular zone in vivo. Identification of the molecular cues that modulate NSPC fate choice is a prerequisite for their therapeutic applications. Previously, we demonstrated(More)
PURPOSE To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of the novel protein kinase inhibitor, UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine), administered as a 72-hour continuous intravenous infusion (CIV). PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty-seven patients with refractory neoplasms received UCN-01 during this phase I trial. Total, free plasma, and(More)
F. Abe, H. Akimoto, A. Akopian, M. G. Albrow, A. Amadon, S. R. Amendolia, D. Amidei, J. Antos, S. Aota, G. Apollinari, T. Arisawa, T. Asakawa, W. Ashmanskas, M. Atac, P. Azzi-Bacchetta, N. Bacchetta, S. Bagdasarov, M. W. Bailey, P. de Barbaro, A. Barbaro-Galtieri, V. E. Barnes, B. A. Barnett, M. Barone, G. Bauer, T. Baumann, F. Bedeschi, S. Behrends, S.(More)
We report on results of an all-sky search for high-energy neutrino events interacting within the IceCube neutrino detector conducted between May 2010 and May 2012. The search follows up on the previous detection of two PeV neutrino events, with improved sensitivity and extended energy coverage down to about 30 TeV. Twenty-six additional events were(More)