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Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) are multispecific organic cation transporters mediating the efflux of various cationic drugs into the urine. The present study aimed at identifying endogenous compounds in human plasma and urine specimens as biomarkers to evaluate drug interactions involving MATEs in the kidney without administration of their(More)
Drug transfer into milk is a general concern during lactation. So far, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) is the only transporter known to be involved in this process, whereas participation of other transporters remains unclear. We investigated the importance of organic cation transporter (Oct) in drug transfer into milk in mice. The mammary glands of(More)
This paper discusses approaches to Mars in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) using the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction, which offers a potential means of producing oxygen on Mars at a significantly lower energy cost than the zirconia-electrolysis system. The RWGS also can be used as the first step in a process to produce either ethylene or methanol,(More)
Telaprevir-based triple therapy is a highly effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C. However, adverse reactions include reversible and dose-dependent elevation of serum creatinine levels. We speculated that this effect reflects inhibition of the renal organic cation transporters hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K by telaprevir or its metabolites (VRT-127394(More)
This study aimed to investigate the interactions of 3 anticoagulants, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran, with 5 human solute carrier transporters, hOAT1, hOAT3, hOCT2, hOATP1B1, and hOATP1B3. Apixaban inhibited hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP1B3, and rivaroxaban inhibited hOAT3 and hOATP1B3, with IC50 values of >20 and >5 μM, respectively. The effect of(More)
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