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Extracellular HSP90 associated with Ag peptides have been demonstrated to efficiently cross-prime T cells, following internalization by dendritic cells (DCs). In addition, the nature of cell-associated Ags required for cross-priming is implicated as peptides and proteins chaperoned by heat shock protein (HSP). However, the role of endogenous HSP in DCs(More)
Musculin/MyoR is a new member of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, and its expression is limited to skeletal muscle precursors. Here, we report that musculin/MyoR is expressed in adult kidney side population (SP) cells and can regulate their function. SP phenotype can be used to purify stem cell-rich fractions. Microarray analysis clarified that(More)
In antigen (Ag) cross-presentation, dendritic cells (DCs) take up extracellular Ag and translocate them from the endosome to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. The processed peptides can enter the conventional MHC I pathway. The molecules responsible for the translocation of Ag across the endosomal membrane into the cytosol are unknown. Here we(More)
In mammals, germ cells undergo striking dynamic changes in DNA methylation during their development. However, the dynamics and mode of methylation are poorly understood for short interspersed elements (SINEs) dispersed throughout the genome. We investigated the DNA methylation status of mouse B1 SINEs in male germ cells at different developmental stages. B1(More)
DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic modification involved in gene regulation and transposon silencing in mammals. It mainly occurs on cytosines at CpG sites but methylation at non-CpG sites is frequently observed in embryonic stem cells, induced pluriotent stem cells, oocytes and the brain. The biological significance of non-CpG methylation(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are molecular chaperones implicated in facilitation of protein folding and translocation between distinct compartments, and hence in preventing protein from aggregation. In terms of proteolysis, HSP act as a double-edged sword, stimulating proteasome-dependent proteolysis while preventing the degradation of the same proteins, even(More)
It is controversial whether a functional androgen receptor (AR) on germ cells, including spermatogonia, is essential for their development into sperm and, thus, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. It was recently shown that many spermatocytes underwent apoptosis in the testes of Hsp90α KO mice. We had generated Hsp90α KO mice independently and(More)
HSP90, found in all kingdoms of life, is a major chaperone protein regulating many client proteins. We demonstrated that HSP90α, one of two paralogs duplicated in vertebrates, plays an important role in the biogenesis of fetal PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA), which act against the transposon activities, in mouse male germ cells. The knockout mutation of(More)
Allele-specific methylation of the endogenous H19 imprinting control region (ICR) is established in sperm. We previously showed that the paternal H19 ICR in yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mice (TgM) was preferentially methylated in somatic cells, but not in germ cells, suggesting that differential methylation could be established after(More)
Changes in gene expression resulting from epigenetic and/or genetic changes play an important role in the evolutionary divergence of phenotypes. To explore how epigenetic and genetic changes are linked during primate evolution, we have compared the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles (methylomes) of humans and chimpanzees, which have a 1.2% DNA sequence(More)