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Eukaryotic transcription activation domains (ADs) are not well defined on the proteome scale. We systematicallly tested approximately 6000 yeast proteins for transcriptional activity using a yeast one-hybrid system and identified 451 transcriptional activators. We then determined their transcription activation strength using fusions to the Gal4 DNA-binding(More)
Comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions is a challenging endeavor of functional proteomics and has been best explored in the budding yeast. The yeast protein interactome analysis was achieved first by using the yeast two-hybrid system in a proteome-wide scale and next by large-scale mass spectrometric analysis of affinity-purified protein(More)
Transcriptionally active and inactive domains are frequently found adjacent to one another in the eukaryotic nucleus. To better understand the underlying mechanisms by which domains maintain opposing transcription patterns, we performed a systematic genomewide screen for proteins that may block the spread of silencing in yeast. This analysis identified(More)
We established a strategy to constitutively activate Zn(2)Cys(6)-type protein by fusing its DNA-binding domain with the VP16 trans-activation domain. To explore gene network regulating yeast multidrug resistance, the strategy was applied to Pdr1, Pdr3 and Yrr1, known to regulate multidrug resistance, as well as three uncharacterized Yrr1-related(More)
It is well documented that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag cleavage site mutations (CSMs) emerge in conjunction with various HIV-1 mutations for protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and improve viral replication capacity, which is reduced by acquisition of the resistance. However, CSMs are not the only mutations that emerge in Gag during(More)
A rapid zidovudine (ZDV) resistance genotypic assay was developed based on the mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR) technique to detect two ZDV-resistant mutations, M41L and K70R in CRF01_AE (subtype E). Endpoint dilution analysis revealed that the newly constructed MS-PCR assay could successfully detect three to nine copies of human immunodeficiency virus(More)
Here we report that sparsomycin, a streptococcal metabolite, enhances the replication of HIV-1 in multiple human T cell lines at a concentration of 400 nM. In addition to wild-type HIV-1, sparsomycin also accelerated the replication of low-fitness, drug-resistant mutants carrying either D30N or L90M within HIV-1 protease, which are frequently found(More)
We constructed a novel tool for genotypic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance by using an enzyme-linked minisequence assay (ELMA). ELMA is a combination of hybridization and a 1-base extension reaction, and we designed the assay to detect five mutations conferring nucleoside analogue resistance (M41L, D67N, K70R, T215Y,(More)
A phenalenone compound, atrovenetinone methyl acetal, was isolated from a culture broth of Penicillium sp. FKI-1463 as an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, and it showed anti-HIV activity in vitro. HIV-1 integrase inhibition and anti-HIV activity of two other natural phenalenones were also studied. Among the tested compounds, funalenone inhibited HIV-1 integrase(More)