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The analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered morphine and the NMDA receptor antagonist, ((+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid; AP-5), the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist, (5-nitro-6,7-dichloro-2,3-quinoxaline dion; ACEA 1021), or the AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor antagonist (ACEA 2752) in(More)
INTRODUCTION Fever is frequently observed in critically ill patients. An independent association of fever with increased mortality has been observed in non-neurological critically ill patients with mixed febrile etiology. The association of fever and antipyretics with mortality, however, may be different between infective and non-infective illness. (More)
BACKGROUND N-methyl-D-aspartate (NDMA) antagonists have minimal effects on acute nociception but block facilitated states of processing. In contrast, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) antagonists decrease acute noxious responses. Morphine (a mu-opioid agonist) can also decrease acute nociceptive processing. The authors(More)
UNLABELLED A new competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor antagonist, (2,3-dioxo-7-[1H-imidazol-1-yl]-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-quinoxal inyl) acetic acid (YM872) has analgesic effects on acute thermal- and formalin-induced nociception by intrathecal administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Two major neurotransmitters, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, may be involved in nociception in the spinal cord. GABA and glutamate receptors may operate in concert to modify signals in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spinal analgesic interaction between(More)
The effects of intrathecally and systemically administered 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist, sarpogrelate on acute thermal or formalin induced pain were examined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with lumbar intrathecal catheters were tested with their tail withdrawal response to thermal stimulation (tail flick test) or their paw flinching and(More)
UNLABELLED Epidurally administered midazolam can potentiate analgesia by epidural bupivacaine. However, whether this effect is synergistic or additive is not known. In this study, we investigated the spinally-mediated analgesic interaction between midazolam and bupivacaine by using the tail-flick and formalin tests in rats with chronically implanted(More)
UNLABELLED Liposomes can serve as a sustained-release carrier system, permitting the spinal delivery of large opioid doses restricting the dose for acute systemic uptake. We evaluated the antinociceptive effects of morphine encapsulated in liposomes of two isomeric phospholipids, L-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (L-DPPC) and D-dipalmitoylphosphatidyl(More)
UNLABELLED We compared the usefulness of the Bispectral Index (BIS), Processed electroencephalogram (pEEG), and Alaris auditory evoked potentials (A-AEP). Ninety females scheduled for mastectomy were divided into three groups. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl to insert a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and was maintained by adding nitrous(More)
UNLABELLED Midazolam may be a useful analgesic when administered intrathecally. However, neurotoxicity must be excluded. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether spinally administered midazolam induces acute-phase histopathological or inflammatory reactions of the spinal cord. A lumbar laminectomy was performed on 40 cats, and their spinal cords(More)