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The mechanism by which mutations in CARD15, which encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), cause Crohn disease is poorly understood. Because signaling via mutated NOD2 proteins leads to defective activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, one proposal is that mutations cause deficient NF-kappa B-dependent T helper type 1 (T(H)1)(More)
The NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) proteins NOD1 and NOD2 have important roles in innate immunity as sensors of microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. The importance of these molecules is underscored by the fact that mutations in the gene that encodes NOD2 occur in a subpopulation of patients with Crohn's disease, and(More)
The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of individuals with caspase recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) mutations and corresponding abnormalities of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) protein to Crohn disease are still poorly understood. One possibility is based on previous studies showing that muramyl dipeptide (MDP) activation of NOD2(More)
In this study, we determined conditions leading to the development of colitis in mice with nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) deficiency, a susceptibility factor in Crohn's disease. We found that NOD2-deficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs) produced increased amounts of interleukin (IL)-12 in the presence of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Mutations in the CARD15 gene encoding NOD2 are susceptibility factors in Crohn's disease. We explored the mechanism of this susceptibility using mice that over express NOD2. METHODS Cellular and molecular responses of mice bearing an NOD2 transgene or administered plasmids that express wild-type and mutated NOD2 constructs were examined.(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) activates host innate immune responses mediated by retinoic acid inducing gene-I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Although the nonstructural protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) of HCV disrupts interferon responses by inhibiting RIG-I signaling, the effects of TLR activation by HCV-associated proteins on host innate immune(More)
Planktonic sulfur oxidizers are important constituents of ecosystems in stratified water bodies, and contribute to sulfide detoxification. In contrast to marine environments, taxonomic identities of major planktonic sulfur oxidizers in freshwater lakes still remain largely unknown. Bacterioplankton community structure was analyzed in a stratified freshwater(More)
The liver has been considered as a tolerogenic organ in the sense that favors the induction of peripheral tolerance. The administration of antigens (Ags) via the portal vein causes tolerance, which is termed portal vein tolerance and can explain the occurrence of tolerogenic responses in the liver. Here we discuss the fundamental mechanisms accounting for(More)
Infection of gastric epithelial cells with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces a complex array of host protective immune responses. The best known are the adaptive T helper type 1 and type 17 responses that are induced in the gastric lamina propria by antigen-presenting cells via presentation of H. pylori antigens to CD4(+) T cells. Recently, it has(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular sensor for small peptides derived from the bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Recent studies have uncovered unexpected functions of NOD2 in innate immune responses such as induction of type I interferon and facilitation of autophagy; moreover, they have disclosed extensive(More)