Tomohiro Watanabe

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For many practical applications of speech recognition systems, it is quite desirable to have an estimate of confidence for each hypothesized word. Unlike previous works on confidence measures, we have proposed features for confidence measures that are extracted from outputs of more than one LVCSR models. For further analysis of the proposed confidence(More)
This paper proposes to apply machine learning techniques to the task of combining outputs of multiple LVCSR models. The proposed technique has advantages over that by voting schemes such as ROVER, especially when the majority of participating models are not reliable. In this machine learning framework, as features of machine learning, information such as(More)
Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)2 is a member of the NOD-like receptor family of proteins that initiate inflammatory responses when exposed to ligands derived from bacterial components that gain access to the intracellular milieu. It is thus somewhat paradoxical that polymorphisms in the gene that encode NOD2 (CARD15) that lead to impaired NOD2(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular sensor for small peptides derived from the bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Recent studies have uncovered unexpected functions of NOD2 in innate immune responses such as induction of type I interferon and facilitation of autophagy; moreover, they have disclosed extensive(More)
Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown(More)
Administration of an antigen (Ag) per oral route leads to apoptosis of Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells and to development of Th2 cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) in the liver. We determined whether presentation of an ingested Ag in the liver alone was enough to select these FasL(+)Th2 cells and explored how this selection was achieved in the liver. Ovalbumin(More)
Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) develop in the context of chronic liver inflammation. Oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of HCC development. In this study, we examined whether cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (Cirp) controls reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and development of HCC by using murine models of(More)
It is well established that polymorphisms of the caspase activation and recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) gene, a major risk factor in Crohn's disease (CD), lead to loss of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) function. However, a molecular explanation of how such loss of function leads to increased susceptibility to CD has remained unclear. In a(More)
Planktonic sulfur oxidizers are important constituents of ecosystems in stratified water bodies, and contribute to sulfide detoxification. In contrast to marine environments, taxonomic identities of major planktonic sulfur oxidizers in freshwater lakes still remain largely unknown. Bacterioplankton community structure was analyzed in a stratified freshwater(More)