Tomohiro Tanaka

Learn More
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of neurotrophins involved in the development and maintenance of both the peripheral nervous system and CNS. Although the expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB still occurs in the adult stage, their physiological role in the mature CNS is not fully understood. In the present study we examined in detail the(More)
Endothelial dysfunction or activation elicited by oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, characterized by intimal thickening and lipid deposition in the arteries. Ox-LDL and its lipid constituents impair endothelial production of nitric oxide, and induce the endothelial expression of(More)
p47v-crk (v-Crk), a transforming gene product containing Src homology (SH)-2 and -3 domains, induces an elevated level of tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins. Among these proteins, a 125-135 kDa protein (p130) shows marked phosphorylation at tyrosines and tight association with v-Crk, suggesting a direct signal mediator of v-Crk. Here we(More)
A number of type-II classic cadherin cell-cell adhesion molecules are expressed in the brain. To investigate their roles in brain morphogenesis, we selected three type-II cadherins, cadherin-6 (cad6), -8 (cad8) and -11 (cad11), and mapped their expressions in the forebrain and other restricted regions of postnatal mouse brains. In the cerebral cortex, each(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been shown to mediate biological actions in response to cytokines. Stat3, a member of the STAT family, is activated by a variety of cytokines, including the interleukin 6 family of cytokines, leptin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and epidermal growth factor. To address the(More)
The LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD) proteins, which contain two tandem LIM domains followed by a homeodomain, are critical transcriptional regulators of embryonic development. The LIM domain is a conserved cysteine-rich zinc-binding motif found in LIM-HD and LMO (rhombotin or Ttg) proteins, cytoskeletal components, LIM kinases and other proteins. LIM domains are(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder that affects the cerebellum and other areas of the central nervous system. We have devised a novel strategy, the direct identification of repeat expansion and cloning technique (DIRECT), which allows selective detection of expanded CAG repeats and cloning of the genes(More)
The solution structure of Ca(2+)-free calmodulin has been determined by NMR spectroscopy, and is compared to the previously reported structure of the Ca(2+)-saturated form. The removal of Ca2+ causes the interhelical angles of four EF-hand motifs to increase by 36 degrees-44 degrees. This leads to major changes in surface properties, including the closure(More)