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Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated cation channels derived from algae that have shown experimental utility in optogenetics; for example, neurons expressing ChRs can be optically controlled with high temporal precision within systems as complex as freely moving mammals. Although ChRs have been broadly applied to neuroscience research, little is known(More)
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons to maintain genome integrity in animal germ lines. piRNAs are classified as primary and secondary piRNAs, depending on their biogenesis machinery. Primary piRNAs are processed from long non-coding RNA precursors transcribed from piRNA clusters in the genome through the primary processing pathway. Although(More)
Tight junctions are cell-cell adhesion structures in epithelial cell sheets that surround organ compartments in multicellular organisms and regulate the permeation of ions through the intercellular space. Claudins are the major constituents of tight junctions and form strands that mediate cell adhesion and function as paracellular barriers. We report the(More)
We previously reported a 120-kDa phosphoprotein that translocated from cytosol to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells in association with stimulation of HCl secretion. To determine the molecular identity of the protein, we performed molecular cloning and expression of the protein. Immunoblot analysis showed that this protein was highly enriched in(More)
Inflammatory activation of myeloid cells is accompanied by increased glycolysis, which is required for the surge in cytokine production. Although in vitro studies suggest that increased macrophage glucose metabolism is sufficient for cytokine induction, the proinflammatory effects of increased myeloid cell glucose flux in vivo and the impact on(More)
SWEET family proteins mediate sugar transport across biological membranes and play crucial roles in plants and animals. The SWEETs and their bacterial homologues, the SemiSWEETs, are related to the PQ-loop family, which is characterized by highly conserved proline and glutamine residues (PQ-loop motif). Although the structures of the bacterial SemiSWEETs(More)
Ca(2+)/cation antiporters catalyze the exchange of Ca(2+) with various cations across biological membranes to regulate cytosolic calcium levels. The recently reported structure of a prokaryotic Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX_Mj) revealed its overall architecture in an outward-facing state. Here, we report the crystal structure of a H(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger from(More)
The gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase is an ATP-driven proton pump responsible for generating a million-fold proton gradient across the gastric membrane. We present the structure of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase at 6.5 A resolution as determined by electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals. The structure shows the catalytic alpha-subunit and the non-catalytic(More)
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a protective effect against atherosclerosis. Therefore, a compound that elevates the plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels is expected to be a promising anti-atherosclerotic agent. We discovered a novel compound, R-138329, that increased HDL-C by 41% in normolipidemic hamsters at a dose of 100mg/kg. To investigate the(More)
Recent accumulating evidence supports the concept that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may represent an additional therapeutic target for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Scavenger receptor class B type I plays a critical role in plasma HDL cholesterol concentration and structure. This study investigated the effect of scavenger receptor class B(More)