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Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated cation channels derived from algae that have shown experimental utility in optogenetics; for example, neurons expressing ChRs can be optically controlled with high temporal precision within systems as complex as freely moving mammals. Although ChRs have been broadly applied to neuroscience research, little is known(More)
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons to maintain genome integrity in animal germ lines. piRNAs are classified as primary and secondary piRNAs, depending on their biogenesis machinery. Primary piRNAs are processed from long non-coding RNA precursors transcribed from piRNA clusters in the genome through the primary processing pathway. Although(More)
Tight junctions are cell-cell adhesion structures in epithelial cell sheets that surround organ compartments in multicellular organisms and regulate the permeation of ions through the intercellular space. Claudins are the major constituents of tight junctions and form strands that mediate cell adhesion and function as paracellular barriers. We report the(More)
Ca(2+)/cation antiporters catalyze the exchange of Ca(2+) with various cations across biological membranes to regulate cytosolic calcium levels. The recently reported structure of a prokaryotic Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX_Mj) revealed its overall architecture in an outward-facing state. Here, we report the crystal structure of a H(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger from(More)
The H+,K+-ATPase uses ATP to pump protons across the gastric membrane. We used electron crystallography and limited trypsin proteolysis to study conformational changes in the H+,K+-ATPase. Well-ordered 2D crystals were obtained with detergent-solubilized H+,K+-ATPase at low pH in the absence of nucleotides, E1 state, and in the presence of fluoroaluminate(More)
Inflammatory activation of myeloid cells is accompanied by increased glycolysis, which is required for the surge in cytokine production. Although in vitro studies suggest that increased macrophage glucose metabolism is sufficient for cytokine induction, the proinflammatory effects of increased myeloid cell glucose flux in vivo and the impact on(More)
The gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase is an ATP-driven proton pump responsible for generating a million-fold proton gradient across the gastric membrane. We present the structure of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase at 6.5 A resolution as determined by electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals. The structure shows the catalytic alpha-subunit and the non-catalytic(More)
Magnesium is the most abundant divalent cation in living cells and is crucial to several biological processes. MgtE is a Mg(2+) channel distributed in all domains of life that contributes to the maintenance of cellular Mg(2+) homeostasis. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structures of the transmembrane domain of MgtE, bound to Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and(More)
Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2) is the first light-driven Na(+) pump discovered, and is viewed as a potential next-generation optogenetics tool. Since the positively charged Schiff base proton, located within the ion-conducting pathway of all light-driven ion pumps, was thought to prohibit the transport of a non-proton cation, the discovery of KR2(More)
Cardiovascular complications remain the leading cause of mortality in adult human subjects with diabetes. Hyperglycemia has long been hypothesized to explain some of the effects of diabetes on cardiovascular complications caused by atherosclerosis, but a clear causative role for hyperglycemia has not been established. Recent studies in animal models(More)