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Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) in spinal microglia is implicated in spinal nociceptive processing. Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, displays selective inhibition of microglial activation, a function that is distinct from its antibiotic activity. In the present study we examined antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (IT)(More)
The analgesia effects of intrathecal adenosine A1 receptor agonist, R-PIA, on the hyperalgesia and CSF-glutamate release after formalin injection into the rat paw were evaluated. R-PIA significantly and dose-dependently attenuated increases in flinching behavior, and this attenuating effect was reversed by the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist,(More)
Therapeutic hypothermia protects neurons after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia express toll-like receptors (TLRs) that play significant roles in the pathogenesis of sterile CNS injury. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia, we examined the effects of hypothermic culture(More)
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