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Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) in spinal microglia is implicated in spinal nociceptive processing. Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, displays selective inhibition of microglial activation, a function that is distinct from its antibiotic activity. In the present study we examined antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (IT)(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic hypothermia protects neurons after severe brain injury. Activated microglia produce several neurotoxic factors, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), during neuron destruction. Hence, suppression of microglial release of these factors is thought to contribute partly to the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia.(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) are considered responsible for exacerbating brain injury. Activated microglia produce these potentially cytotoxic factors during neuron destruction. The beneficial effects of hypothermia on neuroprotection are considered to be due, in part, to suppression of post-injury inflammatory factors by microglia.(More)
BACKGROUND The spinal release of prostaglandins (PGs), nitric oxide (NO), and cytokines has been implicated in spinal nociceptive processing. Microglia represent a possible cell of origin for these proexcitatory mediators. Spinal microglia possess Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors, and both receptors play a significant role in(More)
Hypothermia is often associated with compromised host defenses and infection. Deteriorations of immune functions related to hypothermia have been investigated, but the involvement of cytokines in host defense mechanisms and in infection remains unclear. We have previously shown that mild hypothermia modifies cytokine production by peripheral blood(More)
INTRODUCTION In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, the prevalence of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is high despite a lack of common risk factors for ASO. The main objective of this study was to investigate a possible direct role of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs), which are frequently detected in SLE patients, in the pathogenesis of ASO.(More)
BACKGROUND Hypothermia is often associated with compromised host defenses and infections. Deterioration of immune functions related to hypothermia have been investigated, but the involvement of cytokines in host defense mechanisms and in infection remains unclear. Therefore, we determined whether mild hypothermia affects the production of several types of(More)
Therapeutic hypothermia protects neurons after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia express toll-like receptors (TLRs) that play significant roles in the pathogenesis of sterile CNS injury. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia, we examined the effects of hypothermic culture(More)
The analgesia effects of intrathecal adenosine A1 receptor agonist, R-PIA, on the hyperalgesia and CSF-glutamate release after formalin injection into the rat paw were evaluated. R-PIA significantly and dose-dependently attenuated increases in flinching behavior, and this attenuating effect was reversed by the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist,(More)