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Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) in spinal microglia is implicated in spinal nociceptive processing. Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, displays selective inhibition of microglial activation, a function that is distinct from its antibiotic activity. In the present study we examined antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (IT)(More)
Hypothermia is often associated with compromised host defenses and infection. Deteriorations of immune functions related to hypothermia have been investigated, but the involvement of cytokines in host defense mechanisms and in infection remains unclear. We have previously shown that mild hypothermia modifies cytokine production by peripheral blood(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) are considered responsible for exacerbating brain injury. Activated microglia produce these potentially cytotoxic factors during neuron destruction. The beneficial effects of hypothermia on neuroprotection are considered to be due, in part, to suppression of post-injury inflammatory factors by microglia.(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic hypothermia protects neurons after severe brain injury. Activated microglia produce several neurotoxic factors, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), during neuron destruction. Hence, suppression of microglial release of these factors is thought to contribute partly to the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia.(More)
Therapeutic hypothermia protects neurons after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia express toll-like receptors (TLRs) that play significant roles in the pathogenesis of sterile CNS injury. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia, we examined the effects of hypothermic culture(More)
To determine the source of infection for the Japanese index case of human babesiosis, we analyzed blood samples from an asymptomatic individual whose blood had been transfused into the patient. In addition, we surveyed rodents collected from near the donor's residence. Examination by microscopy and PCR failed to detect the parasite in the donor's blood(More)
We have isolated piroplasms from a patient who developed the first case of human babesiosis in Japan by using NOD/shi-scid mice whose circulating erythrocytes (RBCs) had been replaced with human RBCs (hu-RBC-SCID mice). Following inoculation of the patient's blood specimen into hu-RBC-SCID mice, parasites proliferated within the human RBCs in the mice,(More)
The analgesia effects of intrathecal adenosine A1 receptor agonist, R-PIA, on the hyperalgesia and CSF-glutamate release after formalin injection into the rat paw were evaluated. R-PIA significantly and dose-dependently attenuated increases in flinching behavior, and this attenuating effect was reversed by the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist,(More)
BACKGROUND T cells infiltrate into the infarcted brain within days after cerebral ischemia and play essential roles in exacerbating the delayed phase of the brain injury by producing pro-inflammatory factors. However, the involvement of these factors in brain damage is also demonstrated systemically. Such periphery-brain abnormalities are interesting(More)