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Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of(More)
Self-incompatibility (SI) enables flowering plants to discriminate between self- and non-self-pollen. In Brassica, SI is controlled by the highly polymorphic S locus. The recently identified male determinant, termed SP11 or SCR, is thought to be the ligand of S receptor kinase, the female determinant. To examine functional and evolutionary properties of(More)
Many plants acquire increased freezing tolerance when they are exposed to nonfreezing temperatures of a certain duration. This process is known as cold acclimation and allows plants to protect themselves from freezing injury. A wide variety of polypeptides are induced during cold acclimation, among which is one encoded by COR15A in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis(More)
Self-incompatibility in Brassica species is regulated by a set of S-locus genes: SLG, SRK, and SP11/SCR. In the vicinity of the S-locus genes, several expressed genes, SLL2 and SP2/ClpP, etc., were identified in B. campestris. Arabidopsis thaliana is a self-compatible Brassica relative, and its complete genome has been sequenced. From comparison of the(More)
Inhibitory neurons play important roles in a number of brain functions. They are composed of GABAergic neurons and glycinergic neurons, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is specifically expressed in these neurons. Since the inhibitory neurons are scattered around in the CNS, it is difficult to identify these cells in living brain preparations. The(More)
Unique secondary metabolites, glucosinolates (S-glucopyranosyl thiohydroximates), are naturally occurring S-linked glucosides found mainly in Brassicaceae plants. They are enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce sulfate ions, D-glucose, and characteristic degradation products such as isothiocyanates. The functions of glucosinolates in the plants remain unclear,(More)
Expression of nuclear-encoded plastid proteins and import of those proteins into plastids are indispensable for plastid biogenesis. One possible cellular mechanism that coordinates these two essential processes is retrograde signaling from plastids to the nucleus. However, the molecular details of how this signaling occurs remain elusive. Using the plastid(More)
Plastids are surrounded by two membrane layers, the outer and inner envelope membranes, which have various transport and metabolic activities. A number of envelope membrane proteins have been identified by biochemical approaches and have been assigned to specific functions. Despite those efforts, the chloroplast envelope membrane is expected to contain a(More)
Self-incompatibility (SI) prevents self-fertilization by rejecting pollen from plants with the same S phenotype. The Brassica SI system is controlled sporophytically by multiple alleles at the single locus, S, and dominance relationships among S haplotypes are observed in both stigma and pollen. We have identified previously five different class-II S(More)
Glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) is a member of the PDZ domain-containing protein family that is localized in the postsynaptic density area. This protein has been reported to interact specifically with the C-termini of AMPA-selective glutamate receptor channel subunits, GluRalpha2 and GluRalpha3 through its PDZ domains. To clarify the(More)