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Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of(More)
Expression of nuclear-encoded plastid proteins and import of those proteins into plastids are indispensable for plastid biogenesis. One possible cellular mechanism that coordinates these two essential processes is retrograde signaling from plastids to the nucleus. However, the molecular details of how this signaling occurs remain elusive. Using the plastid(More)
Inhibitory neurons play important roles in a number of brain functions. They are composed of GABAergic neurons and glycinergic neurons, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is specifically expressed in these neurons. Since the inhibitory neurons are scattered around in the CNS, it is difficult to identify these cells in living brain preparations. The(More)
Self-incompatibility (SI) enables flowering plants to discriminate between self- and non-self-pollen. In Brassica, SI is controlled by the highly polymorphic S locus. The recently identified male determinant, termed SP11 or SCR, is thought to be the ligand of S receptor kinase, the female determinant. To examine functional and evolutionary properties of(More)
Many plants acquire increased freezing tolerance when they are exposed to nonfreezing temperatures of a certain duration. This process is known as cold acclimation and allows plants to protect themselves from freezing injury. A wide variety of polypeptides are induced during cold acclimation, among which is one encoded by COR15A in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis(More)
Glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) is a member of the PDZ domain-containing protein family that is localized in the postsynaptic density area. This protein has been reported to interact specifically with the C-termini of AMPA-selective glutamate receptor channel subunits, GluRalpha2 and GluRalpha3 through its PDZ domains. To clarify the(More)
In crucifers, the pollen S-determinant gene, SP11, is sporophytically expressed in the anther tapetum, and the pollen self-incompatibility phenotype is determined by the dominance relationships between the two S-haplotypes it carries. We report here that 5' promoter sequences of recessive SP11 alleles are specifically methylated in the tapetum before the(More)
Cervical teratomas are rare neoplasms in adults. A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of a cervical tumor. CT scan and MRI showed the tumor extended into the mediastinum and not invaded to surrounding tissue. 201T1 scintigram showed increased uptake in the tumor. The tumor was resected with coller incision and median sternotomy.(More)
GABAergic interneurons play central roles in the regulation of neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). They are also suggested to be the principal targets of the brainstem noradrenergic afferents which are involved in the enhancement of the BLA-related memory. In addition, behavioral stress has been shown to impair noradrenergic(More)