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This paper proposes a general video game playing AI that combines a pathfmding algorithm with Knowledge-based Fast-Evolutionary Monte-Carlo tree search (KB Fast-Evo MCTS). This AI is able to acquire knowledge of the game through simulation, select suitable targets on the map using the acquired knowledge, and head to the target in an efficient manner. In(More)
Recent experimental studies on the stepwize motion of biological molecular motors have revealed that the " characteristic distance " of a step is usually less than the actual step size. This observation implies that the detailed-balance condition for kinetic rates of steps is violated in these motors. In this letter, in order to clarify the significance of(More)
Lemaitre–Tolman–Bondi models as specific spherically symmetric solutions of general relativity simplify in their reduced form some of the mathematical ingredients of black hole or cosmological applications. The conditions imposed in addition to spherical symmetry turn out to take a simple form at the kinematical level of loop quantum gravity, which allows a(More)
The asynchronous evolution has an advantage when evolving solutions with excessively different evaluation time since the asynchronous evolution evolves each solution independently without waiting for other evaluations, unlike the synchronous evolution requires evaluations of all solutions at the same time. As a novel asynchronous evolution approach, this(More)
Presence of inhomogeneous layered structures of ionic liquid (IL) molecules at IL/HOPG and IL/mica interfaces was directly detected and imaged by using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. High stability of the layered structures may disturb their interface applications to catalysis and electrochemistry.