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Directionally asymmetric animals generally exhibit no variation in handedness of whole-body architecture. In contrast, reversed chirality in both coil and entire anatomy has frequently evolved in snails. We demonstrate a nonrandom pattern and deterministic process of chiral evolution, as predicted by the following hypothesis. Bimodal shell shapes are(More)
Development is left-right reversed between dextral and sinistral morphs of snails. In sympatry, they share the same gene pool, including polygenes for shell shape. Nevertheless, their shell shapes are not the mirror images of each other. This triggered a debate between hypotheses that argue either for a developmental constraint or for zygotic pleiotropic(More)
Back Side Illumination (BSI) CMOS image sensors with two-layer photo detectors (2LPDs) have been fabricated and evaluated. The test pixel array has green pixels (2.2um x 2.2um) and a magenta pixel (2.2um x 4.4um). The green pixel has a single-layer photo detector (1LPD). The magenta pixel has a 2LPD and a vertical charge transfer (VCT) path to contact a(More)
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