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Directionally asymmetric animals generally exhibit no variation in handedness of whole-body architecture. In contrast, reversed chirality in both coil and entire anatomy has frequently evolved in snails. We demonstrate a nonrandom pattern and deterministic process of chiral evolution, as predicted by the following hypothesis. Bimodal shell shapes are(More)
Back Side Illumination (BSI) CMOS image sensors with two-layer photo detectors (2LPDs) have been fabricated and evaluated. The test pixel array has green pixels (2.2um x 2.2um) and a magenta pixel (2.2um x 4.4um). The green pixel has a single-layer photo detector (1LPD). The magenta pixel has a 2LPD and a vertical charge transfer (VCT) path to contact a(More)
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