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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are first-line treatment for most anxiety disorders, but their mechanism of anxiolytic action has not been clarified. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are anxiolytic in conditioned fear stress (re-exposure to an environment paired previously with inescapable electric footshocks). To clarify the brain regions(More)
Clozapine is a prototype of atypical antipsychotics that has a profile not only to block D(2)/5-HT(2A) receptors but also to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission. This study hypothesized different effects between a single and repeated administration of clozapine on NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission,(More)
RATIONALE The present study hypothesized that delayed increases in extracellular glutamate (Glu) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), induced by a high dose of methamphetamine (METH), can result in some functional changes of excitatory amino acid receptors, developing behavioral cross-sensitization to a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor(More)
We examined effects of nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis inhibition on methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity. The toxic dose of MA (5 mg/kg, sc, x4) significantly decreased contents of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the striatum (ST), and significantly decreased contents of(More)
This study aims to propose a comprehensive new model for schizophrenia, which shows PPI disruption at baseline state as an endophenotype, the development of cross-sensitization to an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 as a clinical phenotype of the progression into treatment-resistance, and accompanied induction of apoptosis in the medial prefrontal cortex as(More)
RATIONALE Our group has recently shown that methamphetamine (METH) (2.5 mg/kg) induced delayed increases in glutamate (Glu) levels in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC), and that its repeated administration leads to behavioral cross-sensitization to a selective uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801). OBJECTIVES(More)
We examined effects of a high dose of methamphetamine (MA) (4.02 mg free base/kg, s.c., at 2-h intervals, 4 injections) on extracellular concentrations of monoamines such as dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and those of glutamate and other several amino acids in rat striatum(More)
The present study examined the effects of both competitive (D-CPP-ene) and noncompetitive (MK-801) NMDA antagonists on behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (MA). Behavioral effects of repeated administration of NMDA antagonists were also examined. Rats treated with MA according to an escalating dose schedule (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10.0 mg/kg, SC, twice a(More)
RATIONALE Neurodevelopmental deficits of parvalbumin-immunoreactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex have been reported in schizophrenia. Glutamate influences the proliferation of this type of interneuron by an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-mediated mechanism. The present study hypothesized that prenatal blockade(More)
A series of experiments was conducted to examine whether rats behaviorally sensitized to methamphetamine (MA) would show supersensitivity or tolerance to the MA-induced neurotoxic effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve terminals in the striatum (ST), nucleus accumbens (NA) and medial frontal cortex (MFC). Moderate to high doses of MA (3, 4 and 5 mg(More)