Tomoe Fukunaga

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Pain is a private internal event, the degree of which can not be evaluated directly by others. The measurement of the nociceptive pain threshold may apply to the evaluation of the degree of the pain. The instruments using mechanical and electrical stimulation are available for the clinical application. Thermotest allows the testing of quantitative(More)
OBJECTIVE Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is expected to have analgesic effects in patients with neuropathic pain, ischemic pain, or mixed pain. The type of leg pain caused by lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is considered as mixed pain, which is expected to respond to SCS. However, there is no established view on the usefulness of SCS in the management of this(More)
BACKGROUND Although mirror pain occurs after cordotomy in patients experiencing unilateral pain via a referred pain mechanism, no studies have examined whether this pain mechanism operates in patients who have bilateral pain. OBJECTIVE To assess the usefulness of cordotomy for bilateral pain from the viewpoint of increased pain or new pain caused by a(More)
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